IASLonline NetArt: Theory

Thomas Dreher

Participation with Camera:
From Video Cameras to Camera Phones

auf Deutsch


From Experimental Film to Video

Since the fifties, artists revivify the experimental film of the twenties and thirties. 1 They achieve new concepts for compositions and combinations via the analysis of fundamentals: the celluloid as material for processing, the single frame and the soundtrack. 2 The importance of the film camera is reduced in relation to the film material celluloid and its treatment.

The filmmakers´ procedures are changing with the appearance of the first purchaseable video cameras in 1965. Since 1968, the Sony Portapak ensemble with its leight weight videocorder portable over the shoulder and the video camera constitutes a system for life recordings which allows to play the recorded in real time at the place of its recording and to observe it in the viewfinder. 3 The data carrier celluloid allows to proceed on the table with editing equipment from one frame to the next. With video, the material editing of celluloid is substituted by the processor for the electronic signal, the editing equipment and the tools for electronic image processing. The transformation of the electronic signals by processors like mixer, sequencer, switcher and keyer removes animation methods which were developed for single frame processing and montage since the end of the 19th century.

In the sixties and seventies, Stephen Beck, Tom DeWitt, Ed Emshwiller, Ken Knowlton, Nam June Paik, Eric Siegel, Stan VanDerBeek, Steina und Woody Vasulka and others experimented with processors, synthesizers as well as with analog and digital computers. 4 The camera became again a substitutable source because synthesizers are able to generate input signals: The camera was for electronic image processing only one data source among others.

Since 1966, artists integrate acting observers in installations with video cameras and projections on monitors. The camera is a non substitutable element of these reactive installations: It is the sensor, whose input can be manipulated by acting observers. They can see the results in real time on the monitors. Since 1971, Nam June Paik integrates in the closed circuit installation "Participation TV II" the input of three cameras and demonstrates the possibilities of image processing with a video synthesizer. The camera gains a new importance as a subject in interrogations of the video´s function in surveillance systems, too. 5


TV Programme and Participation

The American television of the seventies was divided in television stations using channels in the high frequency spectrum for antenna reception, and the new cable television. In the seventies, the technical infrastructure for cable transmission was constructed and expanded.

The limitation of available channels in the high frequency spectrum served to avoid interferences. The limitation caused a distribution battle between private television stations. The stations had to bring in the extensive costs for channels via advertisements. Contrary to the commercial broadcast in the high frequency spectrum, the cable TV was able to offer an unlimited amount of channels. Alternative cable stations offered possibilities to broadcast videos produced with low budgets meanwhile the commercial broadcast rejected videos in the early seventies. 6

Since 1970, Douglas Davis and Stan VanDerBeek realized "two-way communication" 7 in experimental broadcasts – as an answer to the "one-way communication" of the mass media. Spectators sent contributions during the broadcast of VanDerBeek´s and Davis´ projects. High frequency stations transmitted these contributions without time delay.

VanDerBeek and Davis showed videos with intense alienations via image processing and offered spectators opportunities to comment them. In 1970, VanDerBeek experimented in Violence Sonata with two channels of a station in Boston. The two stations could be observed simultaneously with two televisions placed side by side. One channel transmitted films about violence in the American everyday life (WGBH, channel 2). The recordings were processed by cross-fades and colour manipulations. The other channel (WGBH, channel 44) showed simultaneously and live the discussion between invited studio guests about the films which were presented to them in extracts. The studio guests and the spectators of the broadcast discussed the question "Can man communicate?" The spectators have been invited to answer via telephone. In two broadcasts transmitted in 1971 and 1972, Davis integrated comments of spectators via telephone connections. 8

The community TV was transmitted via cable and offered to spectators occasions not merely to articulate social problems but rather to produce films. Video access centers funded by the state and by private sponsors offered in the seventies courses to train people in the use of video equipment. Community TV gave participants opportunities to present the social conflicts which the programmes of commercial broadcast ignored.

The integration of the participants into the process of production was crucial in community TV and video activism. The filmer and the filmed actresses and actors saw the result immediately after the take and decided if a new take will be filmed. It was possible to react fast to actual events because the video editing of a contribution needed short time compared to film editing.

In net platforms video activism becomes a form under many others in net platforms: Video remains relevant as a documentation device in activistic sites like Indymedia 9, but it becomes a part in the context of a multimedial mediation of subjects. 10 Video contributions by activists on one hand are closed entities, on the other hand they are dependent from an internet context with texts, photos and other videos.


Internet and WebCam

The mailbox net ARTEX served as the technical basis for early net projects. In 1980/81, ARTEX was established as a part of the I.P. Sharp Associates (IPSA) Computer Timesharing Network. 11 Roy Ascott´s «La Plissure du Texte» was a "planetary fairy tale" written in 1983 by authors in eleven towns which were connected via ARTEX. 12 The Parisian exhibition "ELEKTRA" presented the development of «La Plissure du Texte» on projectors which were connected to the authors´ terminals. Roles of fairy tales like the wizard, the prince and the witch have been distributed among the authors in Amsterdam, Bristol, Honolulu, Sydney, Toronto and other towns but the result can be compared more with a «Cadavre exquis» 13 than with a fairy tale.

This and other participatory writing projects of the eighties 14 take electronic text transmission directly in the form of collaborative projects: The connection of remote computers caused an additive connection between text contributions written by authors who live far away from each other. In the sixties and seventies the contacts between authors and artists, who live in different continents, become more frequent. In the eighties and nineties, the distances bridging communications between authors are transformed into the telecommunicative communications within a project. The communication is constituted by contributions following one after the other: "Connectivity" as technical precondition and form of the work. 15

After the "communication systems" 16 limited to textual data emerges a net art in the nineties which integrates browsers and world wide web standards and partially thematizes them. Since 1993 browser (NCSA Mosaic) present pictures in textual pages without the necessity of extra loading. The internet gets regulations and a coordinated technical infrastructure 17 by standard functions expanded by browsers 18, protocols 19 and World Wide Web standards. 20

Since spring 1997, Amy Alexander offers in The Multi-Cultural Recycler webcams integrated in other websites. Participants can choose up to three webcams – or they let the system offer its choice. Then they can start an image processing program whose functions can´t be modified. If a participant dislikes the result then (s)he can start anew the image transformation system. Results can be stored in a gallery which conserves only the last six contributions.

In "The Multi-Cultural Recycler" Alexander modifies net projects with databases for image contributions. She uses webcams as sources of transformation processes instead of photos and interrogates the sense of databases which can be filled in an arbitrary way and expand without deletions of elder contributions. Projects like Bonnie Mitchell´s "Chain Art Project" (1993) 21 contain chains of modified pictures. The databases of this kind of projects contain sequences with modifications of one image source. A limited number of participants used self selected procedures for modifications.

In the early stages of net art spectators expected to be invited to activate something. Evidently, Alexander tries to fulfill and to irritate these expectations with her two step procedure from the penetration of image sources to the transformations of the mix. The participant looses the intitiative for image creation in the process from the webcam composite to the image processing. (S)He receives only limited possibilities for choices: (S)He remains the observer who chooses webcam addresses – or (s)he renounces the choice and can´t do something else than to click on the start button of the recycler how participative integrated (s)he may ever feel her-/himself. Via functional and aesthetic indifference "The Multi-Cultural Recycler" thwarts the software consumption of Photoshop by hobby photographers who follow well established models of creativity. Alexander´s strategic indifference challenges the image information – the reference to the pictured subject – as well as the aesthetic patterns of the picture editing.


Surveillance of Surveillance

In 1981, Robert Adrian X installed a TV camera in front of 24 monitors in the control room of the Viennese subway system located under the Karlsplatz station. The control room contained monitors which projected images of the surveillance cameras installed in the subway stations. The TV camera is the central element of his project Surveillance. The second channel of the Austrian national TV (Zweites Österreichisches Fernsehen) broadcasted live images in intervals of the evening program. The intervals lasted between 20 and 60 seconds. Robert Adrian X wanted to broadcast the camera images without comments but the editors insisted on the overlay of an informing title meanwhile the first ten seconds. 22 Adrian X presented the surveillance of subway passersby with the means used to watch over them since 1979.

However, the camera surveillance is transfered via broadcast in private habitation rooms: Now the television becomes a monitor whose images present in real time the 'observations' of a camera located elsewhere. The surveillance of public urban space from observation positions in locations closed to the public is now receivable in the living room at once privately and publicly because the reception is possible at arbitrary Austrian places. The public can control in spot tests what seems to happen – as asserted – in its interest meanwhile it is realized behind its back. The television spectator isolated in private rooms can project her-/himself into the role of the controller and report to the police what he observes as well as commit her-/himself to actions against the new surveillance. 23

In CCTV – world wide watch 24 Heath Bunting presents since 1997 on a website four selected webcams as instruments of surveillance: If participants write observations in a field and send them – pretended as fax – to police stations nearby to the camera locations then the notes end up in a database of his project. The database has four webpages – one for each camera – which list the notes in chronological order. The archived comments demonstrate if the participants recognized the project´s kind of dealing with elements of the "control society" 25 as masquerade.

In "The Multi-Cultural Recycler" Alexander clips – contrary to Bunting – the reference to reality already in the overlay of camera images and underlines their character as manipulable data. The difference between video activism and video art constituted on the one hand activistic camera related strategies and on the other hand procedures which relativize the use of the camera via artistic kinds of image processing. The difference returns in the use of webcams in net projects. However, the net projects don´t present anymore two strategies of an alternative use of video cameras but they make the found use of media a subject of discussion by integrating it in different manners. Robert Adrian X anticipates this strategic turn to the use of found ways to handle cameras: He anticipates a strategic 'surveillance of surveillance' presented below because he uses the camera – contrary to Alexander and Bunting – not directly as a given image source but surveys the surveillance with an extra installed camera.

The video camera is problematized in two projects of 2002 and 2003 as a surveillance instrument which infiltrates the urban space and disturbs the public respect of each passerby´s private sphere. The observation fields of private cameras include in part public regions in the same way as the video surveillance of the police whose legitimization and effectivity is criticized.

The Institute for Applied Autonomy (IAA) and Hactivist.com enable since 1992 in a counter surveillance project passersby and demonstrators with PDA 26 and GPS-receiver to evade as many surveillance cameras 27 as possible. The project combines Maptivist 2.0 supplying wireless internet access as well as GPS localization with the programm iSee. The last one contains maps (of Manhattan, Amsterdam and Ljubljana) with marked places of surveillance cameras and offers the fewest monitored route for a destination. Furthermore informations about barriers, which the police erects or has erected, can be sent to the participants´ PDAs.

The making of city maps for "iSee" with marked places of surveillance cameras requires autopsy: The project offers a strategy to use the logging of surveillance cameras worked out by activists. The activists of IAA comprehend "iSee" not only as an instrument but as a means to provoke public interest for the practiced surveillance.

Michelle Teran distributed wireless video scanners and recording devices to participants in actions since January 2003 (Life: A User´s Manual). 28 The video scanners have been applied to the detection of wireless private connections between surveillance cameras and monitors (CCTV). Participants walked with the video scanners in urban areas and found recordings of surveillance cameras: The infringements of the private sphere are part of the environment in shopping areas and their public surroundings. The recordings have been presented to the passersby at the places of their finding: before the shops. Furthermore, a website documents the recorded videos and localizes the places of finding via plotting on maps.

In tours (for example in Brussels, Argos Walk, 10/23/2003), Teran presented the live video feeds on monitors which she moved in a shopping cart to the fronts of shops.

The projects "iSee and Maptivist 2.0: Surveillance" as well as Teran´s "Life: A User´s Manual" deal with the actual use of surveillance cameras. The Institute for Applied Autonomy and Hactivist.com present ways to register and circumvent the surveillance cameras meanwhile Teran realizes a procedure to unveil the hidden surveillance with the instruments of surveillance. The surveillance is often practiced without respect to legal restrictions. The practiced surveillance present the four projects discussed above with the tools of surveillance to provoke public discussions. 29 Activism returns in the projects of Teran and the Institute for Applied Autonomy in cooperation with Hactivist.com from webcam images for internet access to the places of the surveillance cameras´ live video feeds.

The surveillance practice of the observed citizens withdraws the controllers their self exclusion from the public space. The 'surveillance of surveillance' raises the claim to control the controllers and demands to stop their "silent theft" 30 of the private sphere.


Interactive Urban Experience

In some actual projects offering procedures for urban experiences the technical networks and systems – GPS, mobile telephony and WiFi – with local and global outreach are integrated into internet-based systems. In other projects mobile telephony is utilized as a central medium; characterized by GPS localization and data transfers via the internet. 31

In part, the possibilities to use computers, PDA, mobile and camera phones, cameras as well as GPS receivers are not explained in detail in the instructions. Mobile phone, camera and GPS receiver can be combined in one gadget but this is not necessary. Participants need knowledge of the technical possibilities if they want to realize the annotational option discussed above. Participants with GPS receivers can note their location at the place of the camera shooting or they can identify the place afterwards using one of several available technical procedures. Furthermore, there are several ways to integrate visual and verbal contributions into databases during an urban walk or afterwards because mobile telephony and internet offer access after the fact.


Counts Media´s Yellow Arrow 32 offers participants yellow arrowsas placemarkers for attachments at places of their choice. A participant can order arrows, each with a custom printed code. (S)He mounts the arrows to selected objects and surfaces and sends an SMS with the arrow code and her/his comment to "Yellow Arrow". This number varies from country to country. The public is able to access the comments using this arrow code. The website of the project presents photos of the arrows and the comments beside a route map from MapQuest with marked places. All arrows in a "Featured Place" are marked on images of "Google Maps" (as far as they are available) which appear at the top of the web pages. The documentation of selected arrows appears below. On the website, it is possible to store and recall not only photos but also film and audio documents. Participants can write comments on the published photos and can add their remarks: They can send their remarks to the project database via mobile devices or via computers with internet accesses. The authors of the text-photo-combinations can delete the comments of other participants.


Via the arrows (resp. arrow codes) in situ and their localization on maps "Yellow Arrow" circumvents locative media like GPS or other locative procedures like cell ID mobile location tracking. Further projects presented below use locative media and function without "marks" in physical space.

In actual web presentations the photographic and textual contributions are localized via geotags on Google Maps. The website of "Yellow Arrow" integrates the localization subsequently via "geotagging": Google Maps and its "Maps API geocoder" (starting with the JavaScript of the application for Google Maps (API)) offer the possibility to implement location dates – street names with house numbers – as tags on maps. 33


Tour and Map

Maps presented itineraries and signposts of travelers as a "'log' of their journey" before world maps have been developed in the 16th century. The globe is divided in world maps following geodetic criteria and each place can be indexed by degrees of longitude and latitude. The disparately presented "elements" of "route diaries" are integrated into the "totalizing stage" of world maps. The development of cartography leads to "a plane projection totalizing observations". That´s a summary of Michel de Certeau´s reflections about the historical relation between tours and maps. 34

Satellite pictures and aerial photographs are arrayed in grids within "Google Maps". These images chart the world again in the photographic medium. Hybrid maps provide names of towns, villages and streets over the images from a bird´s eye perspective.


The tour tracks of GPS drawings are the counter part of the "totalizing stage". Jeremy Wood´s and Hugh Pryor´s platform GPS Drawing offers participants to store files with movement drawings. The tour data are recorded by participants in the data storage of the GPS receiver. In December 2004, Tom Carden and Steve Coast installed the platform Open Street Map (OSM). The GPS traces of the tours of many participants are joined together in route maps. The routes´ traces constitute the elements of a world map which are laid over Google Maps looking unsharp like blurred images in low level flight. Thicker representations of streets are caused by the overlay of routes tracked and stored several times (state of September 2006).

This project was caused by an European problem: The use of digital maps of European countries is restricted by copyright and use restrictions while digital maps and aerial views of the American government are (more) freely available because the "Freedom of Information Act" bans restrictions. "OSM" maps are free available. 35

Technical tasks whose solution still pose difficulties are representations of tours on maps which are receivable with mobile phones on site. In spring 2002, the project Street Stories was executed by Warren Sack and students in San Francisco. In Version 2.0, it is planned to offer the chance to create GPS drawings on aerial photographs in mobile phones equipped with GPS functionality (or with directional keys via web interface) and to annotate these drawings with audible "geonotes". 36 The stored tours will be receivable on mobile phones together with the audible "geonotes".

Actual projects integrate places and tours in mapping systems via GPS localization or alternative locative media. 37 The tours´ places are annotated and can be annotated. The annotations are constituted by the participants´ contributions with photographs or films and texts or audio files. The contributions are sent in via internet or mobile telephony.

In 2006, Just van den Broecke worked out a vivid tour representation for Sense of the City. Maps and images of Eindhoven in aerial perspective indicate daily tours of ten participants acting as city residents who exemplify different professions. Tour stations are annotated by the participants with comments and photographs. Van den Broecke used the software GeoTracing for this project now closed for further contributions. He developed "GeoTracing" using the multimedia platform KeyWorx . "KeyWorks" has been worked out by members of the Waag Society in Amsterdam.

A server with "GeoTracing" software installed is utilized in projects like GeoBiking, GeoSailing and GeoSkating 38: Participants can store their paths and annotated waypoints – photographs and short texts – in these websites. Photographs and annotations can be created on a tour via a mobile phone (Bluetooth), a GPS receiver and the MobiTracer-Application. A WebEditor for the subsequent processing of personal tracks is available. The editor simplifies the combination of GPS data with texts and digital photographs (or videos). The archived paths can be viewed on maps and photographs from satellites and airplanes.

In November 2005, N8spel of the Waag Society 39 offered to participants with GPS receivers and camera phones the opportunity to compete with each other in the construction of an eight drawn by GPS tracked movement. The "GeoTracing" server was used for "N8 spel" without modifications. A jury judged the results soon after the end of the game. The members of the jury chose the best eight made by GPS localizations and evaluated the films and photographs which have been sent in during the course of the walks to the game´s headquarters in De Waag (former town gate Sint Antoniespoort, 1488, Nieuwmarkt, Amsterdam). The files were collected with camera phones and were transmitted with localization data via e-mail to the website of the game.


Urban Spaces and Data Spaces

Contemporary communication systems as imbued with GeoTagging or GeoTracing (both since 2005) show a more "complex network of differentiations" 40 than could be anticipated by older uses of cameras f.e. in the video activism of the seventies and in the net communication with and on webcams in the middle nineties. The individual contribution and the participant´s local camera position are displayed on maps which consist of sequences of images made in flying camera positions. These images from satellites and airplanes 'fill' the "geometric space" of the world map with updatable images of an ephemeral 'world situation'.

The relation between "anthropological" and "geometric space" 41 becomes precarious in supraregional organized net projects with annotated locations based on Google Maps: Aspects of the lived and livable regional limited "anthropological space" are communicable in images and texts between participants but the communication happens within the supraregional frame of the world map making it necessary to segregate regional "projects" or "galleries" and other frames in frames: localization in the "totalizing stage" world.

In Yellow Chair Stories, Anab Jain uses neither camera nor maps. Developed in London in June 2005 42, the project serves in the following argumentation as a complement to net projects with maps and localized contributions.

Jain places a yellow chair in the front of her entrance (43, Sinclair Road). A plate with the following inscription is mounted behind the chair: "My WiFi network is open for neighbours and passersby. Free access from this chair!" The inscription invites passersby with their laptop (with WiFi card) to use her computer and its wireless open access not only as an access to the internet but to read or to listen to her Today´s Offer in the "shared folder" as well as to store comments. Jain states: "Both the sign and the chair defined a 'real world blog space' – a territory for conversation between neighbours." 43

Within the range of Jain´s wireless open access, participants are able to read the comments stored on her computer. This computer is the basis for a local network between neighbours which is not supraregional accessable like newsgroups mailing list or blogs. Jain connects the marked 'site' in urban space with two data spaces – one data space offers her computer to the neighbourhood´s network and the other data space is constituted by the internet. 44

Jain´s regionalisation via neighbourhood network operates at a different scale altogether than projects focused on maps, cameras and communication networks. The presentations of urban experiences reported by participants take place on different kinds of supraregional map systems. The projects combine these systems in different manners with organizations of the databases following different criteria in the storing of content.

Carbon Defense League´s MapHub 45 offers possibilities for groups to install "hubs" in the database. The tags of a "hub" appear with a distinct signet on the map of Pittsburgh: The urban map is developped as a datascape which sorts out references to various characteristics of the urban space. In one implementation the project was installed only for Pittsburgh, on the other the system is availabe as Open Source (Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0) and it can be reused in projects for other cities.

Projects for interactive urban experience are based on communication systems whose proliferation depends on the efforts of some of their organizers to attract participants. Municipalities adopt projects that pass the test of social practice in another city where they achieved a "critical mass" of users. In 2004, "Yellow Arrow" was started as a website for New York. After the installation of a further website for Boston in 2004 and several nation specific sites for Germany, Great Britain and Denmark in 2005, all these sites were integrated into one comprehensive platform (version 2.0, November 2005) now documenting arrows from 38 countries. "Yellow Arrow" rose from a local to a supraregional organized project which offers visitors to opt between "galleries" which are sorted out following the classification criteria of countries, towns, projects and participants.

A contribution´s visual and textual documentation can gain distinctness in relation to the context of data built by other contributions. The archive with all contributions constitutes a data pool which supports and relativizes simultaneously all content. Against the backdrop of "geometric space", the data pool of a project appears as the collective horizon of experience which is worked out cooperatively and which changes its character with its local priorities and the addition of new contributions.


The relative arbitrary role of one´s own contribution in 'infinite' open projects like "Yellow Arrow" including many cities and on the other hand its importance in closed projects like "Sense of the City" (see above), mark two poles on a scale of possibilities for mapping with locative media. The "Yellow Arrow" website counteracts the arbitrariness of discrete contributions with frames within frames because it is possible to build "projects" within the section "featured places" and the state of a project´s development remains surveyable.

The Assoziatons-Blaster by Dragan Espenschied and Alvar C. Freude was the most popular collaborative writing project of the nineties. It combines link and filter as central functions. Since 1999, a community of contributors have developed content for the project. 46 The information architecture for "Assoziations-Blaster" was a decentralized horizontal model. Around 2005, this horizontal model was redeveloped as a vertical stratification of data in systems like Yuan.CC. Maps which combines distributed databases like Google Maps and Flickr.com. 47 The data organization is based on distributed nodes and allows users to choose local contexts. The technical organization of media cotent (texts, photos, films autio, maps, localization procedures) and the structure of the informational levels of the database for contributions constitute the 'nodal points' within a project.


The Art of Activities: Only Local?

William T. Cavanaugh combined Michel Foucault´s investigations of the "dispositifs" produced by "disciplinary societies" 48 and Gilles Deleuze´s short sketch of their transformation into "societies of control" 49 with Michel de Certeau´s criteria of "space" to a criticism of the globalization: Universal and universalized "geometric spaces" abstracting from local particularities as well as from individual experiences are featured as characteristics of globalization. 50 Globalization is described as being prepared by the "disciplinary" and "surveillance societies" and perpetuated by the subordination of the "anthropological spaces" under the "geometric space" in the "control society".

The following criteria of the projects mentioned above are indications of the "geometric space´s" dominance in "surveillance" and "control societies":

  • the geodetic zoning of world maps for the localization of all the places which are on the earth,
  • the camera´s observation positions in the aerial perspective of satellites and airplanes,
  • the grid of Google Maps for cartographic image sources, and
  • the civilian use of available GPS signals allowed since 2000 by the U.S. Department of Defense.

Acting in the "anthropological space" as an ideal vision of an environment without or liberated from globalization is a counter concept to the spatial practices of "surveillance" or "control societies" and their characteristics as we can find them in cartography and locative media.

Brian Holmes follows this line of argumentation in "Drifting through the Grid" and characterizes the "geometric space" of world maps organized by geodetic criteria and the technical structure of GPS as a part of the "hyper-rationalist grid of Imperial infrastructure" against which he offsets the "psychogeography" of the Situationists. To Holmes, "mapping" with locative media is at best like "an inscription of the individual, a geodetic tracery of individual difference" able to constitute nothing more than "a fragile gesture, fraught with ambiguity." 51

Chris Byrne, Ben Russell, Alison Sant, Marc Tuters, Kazys Varnelis und Tobias C. van Veen are some of the authors who offer occasions to Holmes´ criticism. 52. These authors try to transmit semantic fields of the Situationist term "psychogeography" to the characteristics of projects using locative media for "collaborative mapping". Holmes criticizes the evident deviations of these projects from the situationistic «dérive» as consequences of globalization. 53

For members of the Lettrist International (1952-57) and Situationism (1957-72) the term "psychogeography" signified the logging of urban experiences provoked by pointedly pointless vagrancy. If one tries to actualize the term in a manner relevant for projects using "collaborative mapping" with locative media then a redefinition with the assistance of "Environmental Psychology" will be a crucial step: The subject of these projects are observing attitudes in the urban everyday life, not their situationistic dissolution. What Situationism wanted to unmask as the one-dimensional practice of everyday life proves itself polymorphic: the schemes of self orientation in a socially precoded urban environment. 54

Another approach investigates the aspects of "societies of control" before he evaluates it. But this investigation was the result of a false start:

In "The Limits of Networking", Alexander R. Galloway and Eugene Thacker interpret the protocols of the internet which regulate the technical preconditions of the data transfer between computers as parts of a "techno-culture" constituting "a totalizing control apparatus". The concept of a closed system, that should be attacked by a "counterprotocol practice" 55, is yielded in Galloway´s book "Protocol" to a multi-layered study. In Galloway´s revised approach, protocols constitute possibilities for the control of the internet 56 and they are reported as a feature of the "societies of control" but this doesn´t explain if and how power is wielded with technically expanded means for control. 57

The projects for locative media described above use technologies of the "societies of control". Platforms for "collaborative mapping" with locative media allow users to articulate ways of observing urbanity which have not been taken into consideration by decision makers in urban planning, architecture or finance. The attention of city dwellers is directed not only to the traces of regulatory procedures and to new buildings but to conglomerates with remnants of different construction and use phases. These conglomerates are threatened by the activities mentioned above even though they continue to be memorized as parts of "mental images" 58 and as important elements of a social structure.

Urban environments rely on a balance between their social, economic and ecological conditioned infrastructures. The maintenance of this balance obliges to regulation. Participants demand the permanent renewal of this balance with their articulations of urban experiences and urban imaginations in projects which offer platforms with databases for these contributions. The projects claim this counterbalance not only in a direct manner via the contributors´ criticism describing the endangerment of urban infrastructure but indirectly with references to the role of urban diversity. Contributions about (memories upon) the traffic, the shops, the inhabitants and the passersby provide informations on the cultures and social strata which determined and determine an urban quarter. A simplistic criticism of globalization arguing with adverse comments on "geometric spaces" renounces these possibilities of articulation as they are offered by projects for "collaborative mapping" with locative media. 59

The projects should be able not only to archive changes in urban environments but to contribute to the changes of the change together with the projects about 'surveillance of surveillance': Will the future of urban environments be to become a local mirror of global operating investors and will its character as public space be undermined by safeguarding strategies using video surveillance in the sake of private properties, or will it be possible to revitalize permanently its character as public urban space?


"Cognitive" and "Collaborative Mapping"

Brian Holmes´ predilection for "cognitive mapping" 60 of ways of thinking and power structures as well as his reservations towards "collaborative mapping" with locative media, especially with GPS, provoke the following consideration:

The term "cognitive mapping" includes operations of observing structuring correlations as well as the results of these operations presented as diagrams (f.e. concept maps). The reader will concede to these diagrams the double function as a reconstruction of structures and as an influence on her/his imaginations of these structures. Diagrams 'structure': They visualize correlations based on past experiences and influence imaginations and schedulings with decisions about future possibilities.

Possibilities for the presentation of texts, photos and films on maps are used in "collaborative mapping" with locative media to come up with data configurations which are able to affirm, modify or transgress the 'map readers'´ imaginations of the life in a city as well as the city life. Ways of observing emerging from projections of contributions on maps can afford causes for "cognitive mapping": Trials to represent the social city life in its 'real' existence assert claims concerning the reproduction of reality in its totality which have to be resigned. Readers/viewers can´t find precise distinctions between the time based levels of past, present and future (as it was, is, and will be), neither in specific comments nor in selected images, nor in configurations of the contributions in the database – memory protocol and vision penetrate each other in the imagination of users. Digital information systems for the use of world maps as well as views of the whole earth from satellites and airplanes constitute playing fields for configuration which provoke individual reading manners.

The "anthropological space" can be extrapolated with the help of the "geometric space" – the global organization of space opens up possibilities for a multi-layered local self orientation. "Collaborative mapping" with locative media offers an opportunity to use the different layers of cognitive space organization as the substructure for the articulation of interactive urban experience. One level for the construction of relations between the global and the local is offered by the localization on world maps and a further level is constituted by the contributions located on these maps. In a direct or an indirect manner, they express the experiences of the global in local relations via images and texts.

Meanwhile Holmes apprehends deviant behaviours of passersby as «détournement» of the structures of town planning and city life 61, Fredric Jameson´s position can be critiqued as a consequence of the organization of "geometric space" and can be proven in attempting «détournement». There is no escape from the reconstruction of the interplay of supraregional organized systems for the facilitation of the practice of everyday life with such systems complicating and hampering this practice as well as from the analysis of the interplay´s reasons: criticism of globalization without vanishing point. 62

If – with Fredric Jameson – "the project of cognitive mapping obviously stands or falls with the conception of some (unrepresentable, imaginary) global social totality that was to have been mapped" 63, then mediations between global and local processes are constituents of a "history in work" 64 trying to recognize and criticize the global in the local. 65

Dr. Thomas Dreher
Schwanthalerstr. 158
D-80339 München.
Homepage with numerous art historical texts, among others on Conceptual Art and Intermedia Art.

Copyright © by the author, September 2006 / English translation February/November 2007 (as defined in Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Germany).
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1 The artist are "filmmakers" working with the material film.
The history of experimantal films in the twenties and thirties: Drummond, Philip u.a.: Film as Film. Formal Experiment in Film 1910-1975. Cat. exhib. Hayward Gallery. London 1979, p.17-89; Hein, Birgit: Film im Underground. Von seinen Anfängen bis zum Unabhängigen Kino. Frankfurt am Main a.o. 1971, p.24-55; Russett, Robert/Starr, Cecile: Experimental Animation. Origins of a New Art. New York 1976/2nd edition 1988, p.33-71.
On Lettristic films since 1950: Debord, Guy: Gegen den Film. Filmskripte. Hamburg 1978 (French original: Contre le cinema. Aarhus 1964), p.17ss.; Drummond, Philip a.o.: Film as Film, s.a., p.142s.; Ohrt, Roberto: Phantom Avantgarde. Eine Geschichte der Situationistischen Internationale und der modernen Kunst. Hamburg 1990, p.26-42.
Illustrations of the mentioned works: see the illustration line (ppt with 6 MB or pdf with 5 MB). back

2 The experimental films realized in Vienna in 1957 by Marc Adrian, Kurt Kren and Peter Kubelka and in 1958 in New York by Bruce Conner and Raphael Montañez Ortiz are centred on the film material – the single frame – and the possibilities of processing via montage. The Viennese authors constructed abstract films and the filmmakers in New York made cuts in found footage.
Vienna, 1957: Adrian, Marc/Kren, Kurt: Black Movie, 1957; Kren, Kurt: Versuch mit synthetischem Ton, 1957; Kubelka, Peter: Adebar, 1957. All in: Horweth, Alexander/Ponger, Lisl/Schlemmer, Gottfried (ed.): Avantgardefilm Österreich. 1950 bis heute. Vienna 1995, p.40-44,116s.,143s.; Scheugl, Hans: Erweitertes Kino. Die Wiener Filme der 60er Jahre. Vienna 2002, p.25s.,32,194.
New York, 1958: Conner, Bruce: A Movie, 1958. In: Haskell, Barbara/Hanhardt, John G.: Blam! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism and Performance 1958-1964. Cat. exhib. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York 1984, p.122s.; Hein, Birgit: Film im Untergrund. Von seinen Anfängen bis zum Unabhängigen Kino. Frankfurt am Main u.a. 1971, p.78; Sitney, P. Adams: Visionary Film. The American Avant-Garde. Oxford 1974, p.348s. Ortiz, Raphael Montañez: Cowboys and Indians, 1958. In: Dreher, Thomas: Destruktionskunst für und in selbstinstituierender Gesellschaft. In: neue bildende kunst. Nr.1/Februar-März 1998, p.57s. New in: URL: http://dreher.netzliteratur.net/ 2_Performance_Ortiz_Text.html (7/27/2006). zurück

3 Sony CV-2400 Porta Pak, since 1968. In: Without author: Sony CV-2400 Porta Pak. In: Video History Project: Resources – Tools – Texts. Experimental Television Center Ltd., Binghamton University, Newark Valley. URL: http://www.experimentaltvcenter.org/ history/ tools/ ttool.php3?id=54&page=1 (7/27/2006); Miller Hocking, Sherry: Two Texts Concerning Portable Video (1992). In: Video History Project, s.a. URL: http://www.experimentaltvcenter.org/ history/ tools/ ttext.php3?id=1 7&page= 1#Chronology%20of%20the %20Portable%20Videotape (9/11/2006).
Les Levine (Bum) and Nam June Paik (The Pope´s Visit in New York, presented at Café a Go Go, New York, 10/4/1965) began in 1965 in America to use video (Hall, Doug/Fifer, Sally Jo (ed.): Illuminating Video. An Essential Guide to Video Art. New York 1990, p.51; Herzogenrath, Wulf/Decker, Edith (ed.): Video-Skulptur. Retrospektiv und aktuell 1963-1989. Cologne 1989, p.195,239; Spielmann, Yvonne: Video. Das reflexive Medium. Frankfurt am Main 2005, p.126-132 with further facts to the first artistic use of video). In "The Premature Birth of Video Art" Tom Sherman refutes Paik´s statement to have used a Porta Pak in 1965 (In: iDC Digest. Vol.27/issue 17, 1/8/2007. URL: http://mailman.thing.net/ pipermail/ idc/ 2007-January/ 000949.html (1/21/2007))). back

4 Miller Hocking, Sherry: Principles of Electronic Image Processing – Image Processing Systems (1978-1980). In: Video History Project: Resources – Tools – Texts. Experimental Television Center Ltd., Bingham University, Newark Valley. URL: http://www.experimentaltvcenter.org/ history/ tools/ ttext.php3?id=12&page=1 (9/6/2006); Russett, Robert/Starr, Cecile: Experimental Animation, s. ann.1, p.178-210; Spielmann, Yvonne: Video, s. ann.3, p.78-96,151-191; Vasulka, Steina und Woody: Eigenwelt der Apparatewelt. Pioneers of Electronic Art. Cat. exhib. Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum Francisco Carolinum. Linz 1992. New in: URL: http://vasulka.org/ Kitchen/ PDF_Eigenwelt/ Eigenwelt.htm (8/3/2006). back

5 Early closed circuit installations: Levine, Les: Slipcover, 1966. In: Herzogenrath, Wulf/Decker, Edith (ed.): Video-Skulptur, s. ann.3, p.195s.; Kacunko, Slavo: Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen. Berlin 2004, p.160-163.
Paik, Nam June: Participation TV II, Howard Wise Gallery, New York 1969 (new installation with video synthesizer: Galleria Bonino, New York 1971). In: Decker, Edith: Paik Video. Köln 1988, p.65s.; Herzogenrath, Wulf: Nam June Paik. Fluxus, Video. München 1983, p.56s.; Kacunko, Slavo: Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen, s.a., p.187s.
Video in surveillance functions as a theme of closed circuit installations and performances with video closed-circuits: Nauman, Bruce: Live/Taped Video Corridor, 1969. In: Dreher, Thomas: Performance Art nach 1945. Aktionstheater und Intermedia. Munich 2001, p.343, ann.567; Herzogenrath, Wulf/Decker, Edith (ed.): Video-Skulptur, s. ann.3, p.43,164s. (colored ill.24),216,218; Acconci, Vito: Claim, 1971. In: Dreher, Thomas: Performance Art nach 1945, s.a., p.351s. with ann.572 and ill.40; Hall, Doug/Fifer, Sally Jo (ed.): Illuminating Video, s. ann.3, p.136s. back

6 On the necessity and the future of the cable TV as community TV: Sutton, Percy E.: Community Control of Television. In: Radical Software. Vol.1/nr.4, summer 1971, p.24. URL: http://www.radicalsoftware.org/ volume1nr4/pdf/ VOLUME1NR4_0026.pdf (12/29/2003).
On video collectives, cable and community TV: Hill, Christine: Attention! Attention! Audience! Performing Video in its First Decade, 1968-1980, chap. 1 b. In: Horsfield, Kate/Hill, Christine/Troy, Maria: Surveying the First Decade. Video Art and Alternative Media in the United States. URL: http://www.vdb.org/ resources/ chrishill.html (8/30/2006). Commercial broadcast accepted video not before it stood the test in cable TV. In the middle of the seventies video replaced film completely and the stations dissolved their news archives with films (Hall, Doug/Fifer, Sally Jo (Hg.): Illuminating Video, s. ann.3, p.58s.; Murphy, William Thomas: Television and Video Preservation. A Report on the Current State of American Television and Video Preservation. Vol.1. Report of the Librarian of Congress. Washington D.C. October 1997. Chap. Preface (by James H. Billington): [subtitle] Major Findings. In: URL: http://www.loc.gov/ film/ tvstudy.html (1/28/2007)). back

7 Paik, Nam June: Untitled. In: Beeren, Wim (ed.): Sonsbeek `71. Sonsbeek buiten de perken, Deel 1. Sonsbeek 1971, p.84: "Communication means two-way communication. One-way communication is simply a notification…like a draft call. TV has been a typical case of this non communication and mass audience had only one kind of freedom, that is, to turn on or off the TV." back

8 Davis, Douglas: Electronic Hokkadim, WTOP-TV, Washington D.C., 6/12/1971; Davis, Douglas: Talk Out: A Telethon, WCNY-TV, Syracuse/New York, 12/1/1972. Both in: Dreher, Thomas: From "Radical Software" to Netactivism (2004). Chap. Video and TV, ann.19. In: IASLonline Lektionen in NetArt. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ NARSe.html#19 (1/28/2007. With bibliographical notes).
VanDerBeek, Stan: Violence Sonata, WGBH, Boston/Mass. 1970 (video documents, 60 min. and 12 min.): Davis, Douglas: Art and the Future. New York 1973, p.91; WGBH New Television Workshop Collection: Violence Sonata. In: URL: http://main.wgbh.org/ wgbh/ NTW/ FA/ TITLES/ Violence201.HTML (8/21/2006). back

9 Z. B. Indymedia Washington D.C. In: URL: http://dc.indymedia.org/ (7/19/2006); Indymedia Deutschland. In: URL: http://germany.indymedia.org/ video/ (7/29/2006). Compare the website of Freespeech TV. In: URL: http://www.freespeech.org/ fscm2/ genx.php? name=home (8/12/2006). back

10 Harding, Thomas: The Video Activist Handbook. London, Second Edition 2001, p.207-216. back

11 Adrian X, Robert: Kunst und Telekommunikation. 1979-1986: Die Pionierzeit. In: Springer. Bd.1/Heft 1. April 1995, p.10s. (In English in: URL: http://telematic.walkerart.org/ overview/ overview_adrian.html (28.1.2007); Breitwieser, Sabine (ed.): Re-Play. Anfänge internationaler Medienkunst in Österreich. Generali Foundation. Vienna/Cologne 2000, p.49s.,300ss.,304; unnamed author: ARTEX: Artist´s Electronic Exchange Network, 1981-1991. In: Mediafiles.at. URL: http://www.mediafiles.at/ php/ content.php?kat=1&ID=15 (7/28/2006). The Mailbox program ARTBOX was developed for ARTEX by Gottfried Bach, the director of the Viennese IPSA-branch. ARTEX was a "user-group" in the IPSA net. Since 1983, the further developed program was called ARTEX (The Artist´s Electronic Exchange Program). Bach´s program and the "user-group" utilizing it got the same name. back

12 Ascott, Roy: La Plissure du Texte, ARTEX, 12/11-23/1983. Documentation: URL: http://alien.mur.at/ rax/ ARTEX/ PLISSURE/ plissure.html (7/28/2006). Text: URL: http://www.normill.ca/ Text/ plissure.txt (7/28/2006); http://telematic.walkerart.org/ timeline/ timeline_ascott.html (8/26/2006). In: Adrian X, Robert: Kunst und Telekommunikation, s. ann.11, p.11; Ascott, Roy: Distance Makes the Art Grow Further:...La Plissure du Texte. In: Chandler, Annemarie/Neumark, Norie (ed.): At a Distance. Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge/Massachusetts 2005, p.282-296; ib.: Gesamtdatenwerk. In: Kunstforum. Vol.103, September-October 1989, p.104,106; Grundmann, Heidi (ed.): Art + Telecommunication. Vancouver 1984, p.35s.,59-67; Popper, Frank (ed.): ELEKTRA. Cat. exhib. Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Paris 1983, p.398. back

13 «Cadavre exquis»: Surrealistic procedure for the collaborative production of texts and images. Meanwhile the Surrealists presented the next author only the ends of their contributions, the authors of collaborative net projects for the creation of images usually know the preceding contributions and expand a multipart image by adding a new visual part (f.e. SITOs "Corpse", 1993. In: URL: http://www.sito.org/ synergy/ corpse/ (9/6/2003)). In Gil Mina Mora´s "Exquisite Corpse" for ACEN (undated, s. ann.14) authors saw only the last line of the last textual contribution (Couey, Anna: Art Works as Organic Communication Systems, s. ann.14, p.128s.; Loeffler, Carl: Telecomputing und digitale Kultur, s. ann.14, p.132). back

14 Projects of ACEN (Art Com Electronic Network) have been realized since 1986 on WELL (Whole Earth `Lectronic Link) and USENET (Couey, Anna: Art Works as Organic Communication Systems. In: Leonardo. Vol.24/no.2. Cambridge/Massachusetts 1991, p.127-130. New in: URL: http://www.well.com/ ~couey/ artcom/ leonardo91.html (7/28/2006); ib.: The Art of Communication Systems. In: MATRIX News. Vol.1/nr.4, July 1991. New in: URL: http://gopher.well.sf.ca.us:70/ 0/ Communications/ couey.104 (7/28/2006); http://art.eserver.org/ art-of-comm-systems.txt (6/28/2006); Loeffler, Carl: Telecomputing und digitale Kultur. In: Kunstforum. Vol.103, September-October 1989, p.128-133). back

15 Compare Ascott, Roy/Loeffler, Carl Eugene (ed.): Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications (Special Issue). In: Leonardo. Vol. 24/no. 2. Cambridge/Massachusetts 1991.
From "Mail Art" and "Correspondence Art" to telecommunicative projects: Möller, Klaus: Kunst im Internet – Netzkunst, Untersuchungen zur ästhetischen Bildung. Diplomarbeit. Fakultät für Erziehungswissenschaften. Universität Bielefeld 1999, chap. Mail Art. In: URL: http://screenshock.com/ theory/ kmdipl/ netzk2.htm (4/16/2001). back

16 Couey, Anna: Art Works as Organic Communication Systems, s. ann.14; ib.: The Art of Communication Systems, s. ann.14. back

17 Galloway, Alexander R.: Protocol. How Control Exists after Decentralization. Cambridge/Massachusetts 2004, p.25: "I argue that Internet is distributed not decentralized and that it is in fact controlled despite having few if any central points of control." back

18 NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois) Mosaic for Unix, Macintosh and Windows, 1993 (Download: URL: http://browsers.evolt.org/ ?mosaic-ncsa/ (8/6/2006). About the history of "Mosaic": Berners-Lee, Tim: Der Web-Report. Munich 1999 (English original: Weaving the Web. San Francisco 1999), p.107-113). The Mosaic browser had precursors but it was decisive for the internet´s popularity in 1994. back

19 On IP, TCP/IP, DNS und HTTP: Becker, Konrad a.o.: Die Politik der Infosphäre. World-Information.Org. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Bonn 2002, p.31-34. URL: http://www.bpb.de/ files/ HYJPCR.pdf (8/12/2006); Galloway, Alexander R.: Protocol, s. ann.17, p.6-12: "Without a shared protocol, there is no network." (p.12) back

20 Determined by the World Wide Web Consortium, URL: http://www.w3.org/ (7/28/2006). On HTTP and HTML: Berners-Lee, Tim: Der Web-Report, s. ann.18, p.66-72. On the Consortium: ib., p.137-153. back

21 Alexander, Amy: The Multi-Cultural Recycler. In: Werkleitz Biennale 1998: subfiction. Internetpräsentation 1. Konsumgebäude Tornitz, 9/4/1998. URL: http://www.werkleitz.de/ events/ biennale1998/ text/ cat/ alexander.html (7/29/2008); Alexander, Amy: The Multi-Cultural Collider. In: Leopoldseder, Hannes/Schöpf, Christine (ed.): Cyberarts. Prix Ars Electronica. Edition 1997. Vienna/New York 1997, p.82s. URL: http://www.aec.at/ de/ archives/ prix_archive/ prix_projekt.asp? iProjectID=10962 (8/28/2006).
Mitchell, Bonnie: International Internet Chain Art Project, with students of the class Computers in Art, University of Oregon, Eugene, 4/5-5/28/1993. Formerly in: http://ziris.syr.edu/chainartdocs/chainart.html (5/3/1999, now not available on internet).
Mitchell, Bonnie: Exploring visual influences. In: National Forum. Fall 1998. New in: URL: http://www.findarticles.com/ p/ articles/ Mi_qa3651/ is_199810/ ai_n8823698 (8/27/2006). back

22 Adrian X, Robert: Überwachung/Surveillance 2, Vienna, Karlsplatz, metro station (1979 new metro, with surveillance cameras). Broadcast ORF, FS 2, 16th June 1981 and exhibition ARTIG, 80er Haus, Wiener Festwochen 81, Vienna 1981. In: Adrian X, Robert: Surveillance. In: Mediafiles.at. URL: http://www.mediafiles.at/ php/ content.php?kat=1&ID=4 (7/29/2006); Breitwieser, Sabine (ed.): Re-Play, s. ann.11, p.156,368; Gehrmann, Lucas/Matt, Gerald (ed.): Robert Adrian X. Cat. exhib. Kunsthalle Wien. Vienna 2001, p.33-37,80s.,144s.,147. back

23 Compare Braun, Reinhard: Surveillance. In: Mediafiles.at. URL: http://www.mediafiles.at/ php/ content_texte.php? kat=3&ID=28 (7/29/2006). back

24 Two links to WebCams have been altered after the start of the project. On "CCTV – world wide watch": Fuller, Matthew: Media Ecologies. Cambridge/Massachusetts 2005, p.9-12,110-164; Hunger, Francis: CCTV. In: Ackers, Susanne/Arns, Inke/Hunger, Francis/Lillemose, Jacob (eds.): The Hartware Guide to Irational. Hartware Medienkunst Verein. Dortmund 2006, p.17,85. back

25 Deleuze, Gilles: Post-scriptum sur les sociétés de contrôle. In: L´autre journal. Nr.1. Mai 1990: URL: http://aejcpp.free.fr/ articles/ controle_deleuze.htm (1/27/2007). English translation in: October. Vol.59/Winter 1992, p.3-7. URL: http://www.n5m.org/n5m2/media/texts/deleuze.htm (1/27/2007). back

26 PDA (Personal Digital Assistant): Palm Pilot. back

27 GPS: Global Positionioning System. In: unnamed author: Global Positioning System. In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ GPS (9/15/2006). The Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) is a subject for The Surveillance Camera Players, who were involved in the construction of the map with 2400 marked surveillance cameras in Manhattan which was integrated into "iSee" (See "Growth of Surveillance in Public Space. Manhattan 1998-2002". In: URL: http://www.appliedautonomy.com/ isee/ centerfoldmap02.pdf (7/30/2006). Compare Zaremba, Jutta: New York und Tokio in der Medienkunst. Urbane Mythen zwischen Musealisierung und Mediatisierung. Bielefeld 2006, p.115-130,204; Zuñiga, Ricardo Miranda: The Work of Artists in a Databased Society: net.art as on-line activism (2002). In: Soundtoys Journal. URL: http://soundtoys.net/ journals/ the-work-of-artists (2/23/2004)). back

28 Teran, Michelle: Life: A User´s Manual, Radio 100, Amsterdam, January 2003/Impakt Festival, Utrecht, June 2003 a.o. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1: Stadterfahrung mit ortssensitiven Medien, Teil 1 (June 2005-November 2006). In: IASLonline Lektionen in NetArt: Tipp. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel1.html (7/30/2006. Projects described in chronological order). back

29 With "iSee and Maptivist 2.0" surveillance is executable on the basis of the mapped places of surveillance cameras. In Hunting´s "CCTV-world wide watch" surveillance is handed over to the participant who executes it via writing a protocol, or (s)he denies the participation because the police seems to be the receiver of her/his protocol. On the necessity for anti-surveillance activists to offer occasions to journalists to write reports on surveillance cameras: Schienke, Erich W./IAA: On the Outside Looking Out: An Interview with the Institute for Applied Autonomy. In: Surveillance & Society. Vol.1/nr.1, 2002, p.106. New in: URL: http://www.surveillance-and-society.org/ articles1/ iaa.pdf (7/30/2006).
On violatons of fundamental rights via video surveillance: Becker, Konrad a.o.: Die Politik der Infosphäre, s. ann.19, p.151: "Das Prinzip dieser Überwachungstechnologien ist..., dass nicht nur Verdächtige beobachtet werden, sondern alle, die sich in den überwachten Bereichen aufhalten; letztendlich bedeutet das, dass jeder, der Grundrechte wie freie Wahl des Aufenthaltsortes, Versammlungsfreiheit, Reisefreiheit etc. in Anspruch nimmt, grundsätzlich verdächtig ist – womit der `freie Bürger´ von einer Neuauflage des `disziplinierten Untertans´ abgelöst wird. Der Grundsatz der Unschuldsannahme wird aufgeweicht und technisch unterlaufen." ("The principle of technologies for surveillance is to observe not only suspects but every person who enters the observed regions; this means that everyone is suspicious who uses basic rights like f.e. the free choice of the place of residence, the freedom of assembly, the freedom to travel etc. – This practiced general suspicion replaces the 'free citizen' by a new edition of the 'disciplined subject'. The basic assumption of innocence is baked and circumvented with the help of technical means.") back

30 Bollier, David: Silent Theft. The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth. New York 2003. back

31 Dreher, Thomas: Interaktive Stadterfahrung mit digitalen Medien (Internet, Mobiltelefon und Locative Media) (Juni 2005-Januar 2007). In: IASLonline Lektionen in NetArt: Tipp. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel1-3.html (1/28/2007). back

32 Counts Media Inc.: Yellow Arrow, New York a.o., since September 2004. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28. back

33 GeoTags on Google Maps: f.e. Nachlin, James Morris: Garbage Scout, New York, January 2006/San Francisco and Philadelphia, since April 2006; ckyuan: Yuan.CC Maps, since March 2006. Both in: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28, Teil 3. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel1C.html (10/8/2007); Elleryq: How to Geotagg with Yuan.CC Maps. In: Elleryq: Thinking More Blog, 3/7/2006. In: URL: http://thinkingmore.blogspot.com/ 2006/ 03/ how-to-geotagg-with-yuancc-maps.html (8/6/2006). Compare on GeoTagging: unnamed author: GeoTagging Flickr. In: Flickr.com. URL: http://www.flickr.com/ groups/ geotagging (8/4/2006); MP:Ole: Fotos geotaggen! In: MP:Blog – Mediaprojekte, 12/19/2005. URL: http://www.blog.mediaprojekte.de/ internet/ fotos-geotaggen (8/24/2006); Torrone, Phillip: How to GPS Tag Photos: Flickr, Mappr, Google Earth...In: Make Blog, 3rd July 2005. URL: http://www.makezine.com/ blog/ archive/ 2005/07/ how_to_gps_tag.html (5/21/2006).
API=Application Programming Interface, open interface for Google Maps, since February 2005. In: unnamed author: Google Maps API. In: URL: http://www.google.com/ apis/ maps/ faq.html (7/30/2006).
Maps API geocoder: unnamed author: Google Maps API version 2 documentation. In: URL: http://www.google.de/ apis/ maps/ documentation/ #Geocoding_Etc (9/12/2006). back

34 Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley and Los Angeles 1984/second edition 1988, (French original: L´invention du quotidien. Vol.1: Arts de faire. Paris 1980), p.118-122, esp. p.119ss. with ann.12 (reference to an Aztec map, the exodus of Totomihuacas). URL: http://people.artcenter.edu/ ~millman/ graphics/ regent/ toursmaps.doc (1/28/2007).
On Aztec maps, 16th century: Aguilar, Manuel/Brady, James E.: The Historicity of the Map of Cuauhtinchan #2 and A Man-Made Chicomoztoc Complex at Acatzingo Viejo. In: Traditional High Cultures. URL: http://www.traditionalhighcultures.com/ Acatzingo.htm (8/7/2006); Mesoamerican Research Foundation: Map of Cuauhtinchan (MC2). In: URL: http://www.mc2-map.org/ mc2.htm (8/7/2006). back

35 Wood, Jeremy/Pryor, Hugh: GPS Drawing, since 2000. In: URL: http://www.gpsdrawing.com/ (8/16/2006).
Carden, Tom/Coast, Steve: OpenStreetMap (OSM). The Free Wiki World Map, since December 2004. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28, Teil 2. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel1B.html (2/2/2007).
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) of the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce: URL: http://www.census.gov/ po/ www/ foia/ foiaweb.htm (8/17/2006). back

36 The feeding of itineraries was tried in a time when projects could not integrate photographs from an aerial view with the API (s. ann.33) on Google Maps. A special server with views from satellites and airplanes had to be integrated. (Sack, Warren and students: Street Stories, project, San Francisco, version 1, since spring 2002 (with Craig Rixford, Mahad Ibrahim, and Michael Kim) and version 2.0, 2004 (with Michael Dale). In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28). back

37 Cookson, Will: Urban Beach, spring 2003. Massage Degradation System | Technical Study v1.0 | Positioning Methods. In: URL: http://theurbanbeach.co.uk/ technical/ 10.htm (8/7/2006). back

38 Links to "GeoBiking", "GeoSailing" and "GeoSkating" in: Broecke, Just van den: GeoTracing (since September 2005). In: URL: http://www.geotracing.com/ (7/30/2006). back

39 Waag Society: N8spel (Game n8), Amsterdam, November 2005. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 2: Spiele im Stadtraum, Teil 3 (August 2005-September 2006). URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel2C.html (1/28/2006). back

40 Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life, s. ann.34, p.126. back

41 The more "complex network of differentiations" is constituted by more complex combinations of anthropologic and geometric spaces: "a combinative system of spaces" (Certeau, Michel, de: The Practice of Everyday Life, s. ann.34, p.126).
"Anthropologic" and "geometric space": Merleau-Ponty, Maurice: Phénoménologie de la perception. Paris 1945/1961, p.333s.; Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life, s. ann.34, p.93,117s. The use of terms in this context doesn´t follow Merleau-Ponty´s phenomenology. It is possible to reconstruct the term "space" as a mental space which can be changed in reaction to technical innovations because new suggestions should be integrated. The reconstruction can follow Niklas Luhmann´s "theory of observation" and interpret "space" as a "two-sided form". Luhmann´s terminology allows to comprehend "space" as the broader "form" or "medium" which offers the differentiation of narrower "forms" in the framework of the wider "form"-"contexture". But these "contextures" can transgress the wider framework and provoke its redefinition ("Medium" and "Form": Luhmann, Niklas: Die Kunst der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main 1995, p.165-214; ib.: Das Medium der Kunst. In: Delfin. Vol. VII/1986, p.6ss.; ib.: Weltkunst. In: Baecker, Dirk/Bunsen, Frederick D./Luhmann, Niklas: Unbeobachtbare Welt. Über Kunst und Architektur. Bielefeld 1990, p.18,20). Now the term "space" signifies not only conscious processes but, too, how and with which means these processes can be communicated because it is only possible to draw conclusions from communications in one medium to the state of consciousness and systems won´t be differentiated in the awareness without context, without stimulations mediated by communication media (Luhmann on "Bewußtsein" ("consciousness") and "Kommunikation" ("communication"): Luhmann, Niklas: Die Kunst der Gesellschaft, s.a., p.19-26,34ss.; ib.: Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Frankfurt am Main 1984, p.142s. Compare Jahraus, Oliver: Bewußtsein und Kommunikation. In: IASL Diskussionsforum online: Bewußtsein und Kommunikation. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ discuss/ lisforen/ jahraus1.htm (9/12/2006)). back

42 Jain, Anab: Yellow Chair Stories, London, June 2005. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28, Teil 2. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ TippSammel1B.html (2/7/2007). back

43 Anab Jain in: Debatty, Regine: Yellow chairs seek households with wifi. In: We make money not art, 6/12/2006. URL: http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/ archives/ 008641.php (8/7/2006). back

44 On the relation between "place" and "space": Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life, s. ann.34, p.117s. Compare Brown, Barry: Geographies of Technology. Some Comments on Place, Space and Technology. In: URL: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/ ~barry/ papers/ place%20and%20space.pdf (8/25/2006); Pope, Simon: The Shape of Locative Media. In: The Mute. Nr.29. Winter 2004/Spring 2005, p.54s. URL: http://www.metamute.com/ look/ article.tpl?IdLanguage= 1&IdPublication= 1&NrIssue= 29&NrSection= 10&NrArticle= 1477 (8/7/2006). back

45 Carbon Defense League: MapHub, project, Pittsburgh, since 2001, test phases 2004-2005, new reorganized website March 2006. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28. back

46 Dreher, Thomas: Link, Filter und Informationsfreiheit, chap. Assoziations-Blaster. In: IASLonline Lektionen in NetArt, Lektion 12 (November 2002/Juni 2004). URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ lektion12.html#Blaster (7/28/2006); unnamed author: Assoziations-Blaster. In: Wikipedia. Die freie Enyklopädie. URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Assoziations-Blaster (7/28/2006). back

47 F.e. ckyuan: Yuan.CC Maps, since March 2006, s. ann.33. back

48 "Disciplinary societies", "surveillance societies": Foucault, Michel: Surveiller et punir. Naissance de la maison. Paris 1975, esp. chap.III.III, p.197-229.
"Dispositifs": Foucault, Michel [interview]: Le jeu de Michel Foucault. In: Ornicar. Nr.10. Juillet 1977, p.62-93, esp. chap. III. back

49 Deleuze, Gilles: Post-scriptum sur les sociétés de contrôle, s. ann.25. back

50 Cavanaugh, William T.: The World in a Wafer: A Geography of the Eucharist as Resistance to Globalization. In: Modern Theology. Vol.15/nr.2. April 1999, p.182-188. URL: http://www.jesusradicals.com/ wp-content/ uploads/ wafer.pdf (3/12/2009 [link actualized]. Cavanaugh´s theological motivated third chapter on "The Eucharist" is left aside). Compare Galloway, Alexander R.: Protocol, s. ann.17, p.2-27; Tuters, Marc: The Locative Utopia, Chapter "The Control Societies Debate". In: TCM [Transcultural Mapping] Locative Reader. URL: http://locative.net/ tcmreader/ index.php? endo;tuters (8/25/2006). back

51 Holmes, Brian: Durch das Raster schweifen. Psychogeographie und imperiale Infrastruktur. In: Springerin. Bd. X/Heft 3. Herbst 2004, p.21. URL: http://www.springerin.at/ dyn/ heft_text.php? textid= 1523& (8/13/2006). The English original with the title "Drifting through the Grid" in: URL: http://www.springerin.at/ dyn/ heft_text.php?textid= 1523& lang=en (8/13/2006). Holmes argues with the quoted utterance explicitly against the project Klee, Jeron/Polak, Esther/Waag Society: Amsterdam RealTime, Amsterdam, October 2002 (description of the project and bibliography in: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28), but he mentions no other project and provokes the impression that it is an example for "the alternative projects or artworks using the GPS system". back

52 Byrne, Chris: Mobile Realism? In: Art Research Communication, 1/12/2005. URL: http://www.art-research-communication.net/ weblog/ ?p=17 (8/20/2006); Russell, Ben: Headmap. Know Your Place. Location Aware Devices. London/New York 1999, S.44-48. In: Headmap 3 Redux. URL: http://www.headmap.org/ headmap.pdf (12/4/2004, not anymore available via internet); Sant, Alison: Redefining the Basemap. In: TCM [Transcultural Mapping] Locative Reader. July 2004. URL: http://locative.net/ tcmreader/ index.php? mapping;sant (8/13/2006. Even if Alison Sant, Ryan Shaw and Michel Swaine are independent from cartographic premises in Trace (San Francisco, Basel, 2004. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipps 1, s. ann.28) they need the zoning procedures of the mobile telephony); Tuters, Marc/Varnelis, Kazys: Beyond Locative Media. In: Networked Publics. The Annenberg Center for Communication. The University of Southern California. Los Angeles 2006. URL: http://netpublics.annenberg.edu/ locative_media/ beyond:locative_media (8/13/2006; unavailable in 10/12/2009. New in: URL: http://networkedpublics.org/locative_media/beyond_locative_media); Veen, Tobias C. van: New Movements. Sound Tracks and Data Footprints. In: Horizon Zero. Issue 15. Toronto, May-June 2004. URL: http://www.horizonzero.ca/ textsite/ flow.php?is= 15&file= 6&tlang=0 (8/13/2006). back

53 Vgl. Holmes, Brian: Drifting through the Grid, s. ann.51: "The aesthetic form of the dérive [as aesthetics which became politics as decor] is [in GPS projects] everywhere." – and the social critical function of deconditioning via «dérive» is ineffective.
If Brian Holmes describes Christian Nold´s project Biomapping (first phase: since Mai 2004, second phase: since October 2005. In: Dreher, Thomas: Sammeltipp 1, s. ann.28) in "Counter Cartographies" without criticism as "psychogeography goes automatic" (with other reasons than an automatic paths finding process) then he reinterprets the term "psychogeography" and leaves Situationistic criteria (Holmes, Brian: Counter Cartographies. In: Abrams, Janet/Hall, Peter (Hg.): Else/Where: Mapping. New Cartographies of Networks and Territories. University of Minnesota Design Institute, Minneapolis 2006, p.24s.).
«dérive» and "psychogeography": Debord, Guy-Ernest: Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography. First publication in French in: Les Lèvres Nues # 6. September 1955. English translation in: URL: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/ sionline/ presitu/ geography.html (11/16/2005); ib.: Théorie de la dérive. In: Les Lèvres Nues #9. Novembre 1956. English translation in: URL: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/ sionline/ si/theory.html (9/9/2006). Compare Dreher, Thomas: Konzeptuelle Kunst und Software Art: Notationen, Algorithmen und Codes. In: IASLonline Lektionen in NetArt: Theorie. URL: http://iasl.uni-muenchen.de/ links/ NAKS.html# Psychogeography (8/16/2006); Ohrt, Roberto: Phantom Avantgarde, s. ann.1, p.75s.,79,83ss. back

54 Lynch, Kevin: The Image of the City. Cambridge/Massachusetts 1960; Batty, Michael: Thinking about Cities as Spatial Events. In: Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. Vol.29/nr.1, 2002, p.1s. URL: http://www.envplan.com/ epb/ editorials/ b2901ed.pdf (1/28/2007); Milgram, Stanley/Jodelet, Denise: Psychological Maps of Paris. In: Proshansky, Harold M./Ittelson, W.H./Rivlin, Leanne (ed.): Environmental Psychology. Man and his Physical Setting. New York 1970, 2nd edition 1976, p.104-124; Ramadier, Thierry/Moser, Gabriel: Social Legibility. The Cognitive Map and Urban Behaviour. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology. Nr. 18/1998, p. 307-319. URL: http://www.girba.crad.ulaval.ca/ Articles/ JEP1998-09_P307.pdf (12/20/2005). back

55 Galloway, Alexander R./Thacker, Eugene: The Limits of Networking. In: Nettime, 3/24/2004 (because of technical error not stored in 3/15/2004). URL: http://www.nettime.org/ Lists-Archives/ nettime-l-0403/ msg00090.html (8/25/2006). Compare Cramer, Florian: Re: The Limits of Networking. In: Nettime, 3/15/2004. URL: http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/ nettime-l-0403/ msg00061.html (8/25/2006). back

56 Galloway, Alexander R.: Protocol, s. ann.17, p.143: "…control in distributed networks is not monolithic…It is a complex of interrelated currents and counter-currents." back

57 Galloway, Alexander R.: Protocol, s. ann.17, p.246: "My goal here in this book has been not to come down cleanly and say that protocol is either good or bad - because clearly it is both, in varying degrees and contexts…" back

58 "mental image", "mental picture": Lynch, Kevin: The Image of the City, s. ann.54, p.2-13,87-90. back

59 In "Collaborative Mapping" reappear aspects of affected persons´ interventions in city politics comparable to the pedagogical projects of the seventies in London provoking inhabitants to report their situation with cameras for the production of photographs and videos. Wrecking and rebuilding caused many problems in London´s urban environment of the seventies. It reached an extension which changed the characteristics of a district and forced the poor inhabitants to change their quarter (Nigg, Heinz: Eine neue Kunst mit sozialer und politischer Bedeutung: Die Verwendung von Foto und Video in der Quartierarbeit. In: Kunstnachrichten. März 1977, p.61ss., Mai 1977, p.85-89, Mai 1978, p.57-64; Walker, John A.: Left Shift. Radical Art in 1970s Britain. London 2002, p.153s.). back

60 Holmes, Brian: Imaginary Maps, Global Solidarities. In: Piet Zwart Institutie, Rotterdam. Publications. URL: http://pzwart.wdka.hro.nl/ mdr/ pubsfolder/ bhimaginary/ (8/17/2006). back

61 Holmes, Brian: Counter Geographies, s. ann.53, p.24. Compare Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life, s. ann.34, p.40s.,91-96,101.
"détournement": Debord, Guy/Wolman, Gil J: Mode d'emploi du détournement. In: Les Lèvres Nues #8. May 1956. English translation in: URL: http://www.bopsecrets.org/ SI/ detourn.htm (1/28/2007); Hinterreiter, Christoph/Holzinger, Stefan/Schaumberger, Christoph: Zweckentfremdung als Negation – Détournement. In: Technische Universität Graz. Institut für Architekturtheorie und Baukunst: Georg-Michael Homann. Arbeitskreis – Architekturheorie 2002 – Die Situationisten. URL: http://www.architekturtheorie.tugraz.at/ homann/ ready/ at/ 2001-2002/3.html (9/9/2006); Ohrt, Roberto: Phantom Avantgarde, s. ann.1, p.86. back

62 Lee, Jeff: Deleuze, Foucault and De Certeau: Power and Invisibility. In: ib.: The Différance Engine. A Practice of Everyday Theory. Blog, 3/7/2006. URL: http://thedifferanceengine.typepad.com/ the_differance_engine/ 2006/03/deleuze_foucaul.html (9/9/2006). back

63 Jameson, Fredric: Cognitive Mapping. In: Nelson, Cary/Grossberg, Lawrence (ed.): Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Urbana & Chicago 1988, p.356. Compare Ramadier, Thierry/Mosel, Gabriel: Social Legibility, the Cognitive Map and Urban Behaviour, s. ann.54. back

64 Bussmann, Georg (ed.): Arbeit in Geschichte – Geschichte in Arbeit. Cat. exhib. Kunsthaus und Kunstverein Hamburg. Hamburg 1988. zurück

65 Jameson, Fredric: Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. In: New Left Review. Nr.146. July-August 1984, p.90. Book version: London/New York 1991, Chapter 1. New in: URL: http://www.marxists.org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ us/ jameson.htm (8/13/2006): "...cognitive mapping in the broader sense comes to require the coordination of existential data (the empirical position of the subject) with unlived, abstract conceptions of the geographic totality." Compare Mirrlees, Tanner: Cognitive Mapping or, the Resistant Element in the Work of Fredric Jameson. A Response to Jason Berger, paragraph 22 (2005). In: URL: http://clogic.eserver.org/ 2005/ mirrlees.html (8/13/2006): "If the globalization of capitalism is a totalizing process through which all different and particular (i.e., non-capitalist) social relations are increasingly subsumed by the expanding logics of commodification, then an equally totalizing abstraction is needed to conceive of this as a new global condition of existence." back


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