The section "NetArt: Theory" contains contributions and discussion
forums concerning problems of NetArt and its wider context, like f. e.
media specific, legal, social and political problems.
- NetArt: Einführung
"NetArt: Einführung" ("NetArt: Introduction, in
German) presents the history of art as a history of media (key term:
"media forms"/"Medienformen"). The media history
of art after the differentiation of art specific media (painting, sculpture,
drawing, artistic print media) leads to its mediation in Intermedia
Art. Its previously last evolution are web projects. Types of interactions
as well as structures of intertwinedness and structures of stratifications
are featured as characteristics of NetArt (November 2000/August 2001).
Diskussionsforum online: Netzkommunikation in ihren Folgen
(IASL discussion forum online: net communication and its consequences,
in German. Coordination: Georg Jäger and Roberto Simanowski)
The contribution Netzkunst
(Net Art) in the discussion forum Netzkommunikation
in ihren Folgen (net communication and its consequences) includes
thesisses and statements about artistic possibilities to create Hyperfiction
and Hypermedia. Further statements which broaden the scope: Roberto
Simanowski and Christiane
Heibach (July 2000).
- Art & Language
& Hypertext: Blurting, Mapping and Browsing (Hypertext 1)
(in German) "Associative indexing" is the dominant feature
of a project of the artists´ group Art & Language. American members
of the group compile "Blurting in A & L" in 1973 as a
dictionary with explanations of their own theoretical vocabulary. The
typical connections between the terms provoke a transcription as Hypertext.
coordinated the transcription in a dense collaboration with ZKM | Institute
for Net Development and in coordination with the artists´ group.
Michael Corris, Thomas Wulffen and Thomas Dreher presented the project
Blurting in A & L online
in 7th July
2002 at ZKM in Karlsruhe. The last one investigated in his lecture
"Blurting in A & L" as (Proto-)Hypertext (July 2002) .
"nic-las": Die Rolle des Teilnehmers in Netzdiskursen (Hypertext
(Collaborative writing project "nic-las": The role of the
participant in net discourses, in German)
The article presents the different possibilities of users to contribute
to the collaborative writing project "nic-las" because the
available instructions are written from a software-oriented and not
a user-oriented point of view. Differentiations are offered for relations
between the rules of Anticopyright in a community of scientific collaborators
and the "intertextimplicit author" as a conclusiveness of
the research concept which the contributions follow although the contributions
are polyphonic and open for cross-references (intertextuality) (October
- From "Radical
Software" to Net Activism
On media activism: Performances with integrated film projections
and integrated coactors with cameras for film documents thematized the
role of cameras and film. New cheap portable video devices (Sony Porta
Pak, available in America since 1968) changed that role and allowed
the practice of new participatory forms in video art and video activism.
The evolution of cheap devices for video production and the expansion
of the American cable TV offered new means for the realization of alternative
TV programs which integrated viewers as participants. Since the nineties
the internet offers video activists new chances for collaborative practices.
Activists reacted to the criticism of net conditions and created tools
against f. e. data mining and censorship. Different strategies were
invented to use video and net tools in actions in the real and digital
spaces (January 2004/English translation: June 2004).
Art and Software Art: Notations, Algorithms and Codes
Self-replicative and generative codes have been developed in Software
Art. Intermedia Art´s relations between notation and realisation
are expanded by new mutations in relations between readable code and
computer processing: Examples of program codes appear as the next step
after formalizations of verbal concepts in Dada, Fluxus and Conceptual
Art. And on the other hand: These formalized notations can be presented
as precursors of Software Art. Lecture, Literatur
und Strom: Code Interface Concept, Literaturhaus
Stuttgart, 11/11/2005, with ppt-illustration
line [9 MB] (December 2005/English translation: March 2007).
with Camera: From the Video Camera to the Camera Phone
The development of the camera´s technology (video camera, WebCam,
camera phone) and its context had and has consequencies for the development
of strategies to integrate participative uses of cameras into projects.
The article outlines the camera´s use as a subject of change from
video and net projects to collaborative mapping with locative media.
University 2006, Hans-Böckler-Foundation,
Goethe-Hall in the Harnack-House,
Tagungsstätte of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft,
Berlin, 9/13/2006 (German print version: Sanio, Sabine (ed.): Kunst
und Technik in medialen Räumen. Saarbrücken 2010, p.59-84),
line [6 MB] (September 2006/Englisch translation: February 2007).
- Pervasive Games:
Interfaces, Strategies and Actions
Pervasive Games are played by participants using technical equipment,
mostly portable devices like laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, cameras,
GPS receivers or head-mounted displays. Nearly all contributions to
the theme borrow the terms "immersion" and "magic circle"
from theories on computer games. These transfers caused contradicting
arguments concerning the relations between the gamer´s actions
and the playground. A model of interfaces is proposed as an alternative
to these contradictions. The 'world-interface' constitutes the bodily
and cognitive access of the player to the world. The 'game-interface'
is constituted by the access of the participant to the elements creating
the game´s conditions: the rules of the game and its technical
equipment. The 'game-oriented world-interface' replaces the opposition
between reality as playground and the game´s system by the participant´s
coordinations between the 'world-interface' and the 'game-interface'
in strategies (concepts) and actions (realizations). The article offers
a theoretical background to the more than 70 examples in "collected
tips 2: games in urban spaces" (Sammeltipp
2: Spiele im Stadtraum) (April 2008. English translation: October
- Monochromacity as a Reflection
of Computing Processes in Internet-based Art
Galzenica (Velika Gorica/Kroatien 2010) Birgit Rinagl and Franz
Thalmair selected seven artists for an exhibition with net projects
thematising digital monochromy. In their e-Mail dialog with Thomas Dreher
they discuss the change from the art-discourse on monochromy as a specific
form of abstract painting to net projects and problematise aspects of
generative art and software. The dialog supplements and augments the
introduction of the curators
for the exhibition White,
Yellow, Blue, and Black, one Coincidence, and one Object (September
- The History
of Computer Art
A large text presents the history of Computer Art. The history of the
artistic uses of computers and computing processes is reconstructed
from its beginnings in the fifties to its present state. It points out
hypertextual, modular and generative modes to use computing processes
in Computer Art and features examples of early developments in media
like cybernetic sculptures, video tools, computer graphics and animation
(including music videos and demos), video and computer games, pervasive
games, reactive installations, virtual reality, evolutionary art and
net art. The functions of relevant art works are explained more detailed
than is usual in such histories. From October 2011 to December 2012
the chapters have been published successively in German (The English
translation started in August 2013 and was completed in June 2014).
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