IASLonline NetArt: Theory
History of Computer Art
VI. Net Art: Networks, Participation, Hypertext
VI.3 Net Art in the Web
VI.3.1 Web: Hypertext, Protocols, Browsers
In the first half of the nineties a number of developments
were crucial for the evolution from the internet to the web. These developments
yielded prerequisites for net art.
Until 1993 Gopher and the web were competing internet systems. When the
University of Minnesota decided to introduce an annual fee for the Gopher
software then the CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire)
in Geneve released their competing WEB Software as public domain software:
The internet participants chose the open web software. Open Source became
a fundamental condition for a far reaching distribution of the web.
A consequence of the developments facilitating the access to the internet,
the surfing and the setting up of a website the web browsers and
the definition of web standards (protocols) was a sharp increase
of internet participants in the nineties. In 1993-94 the developments
from the internet to the web culminated in the web browser "Mosaic",
the formation of the W3 (WWW) Consortium for the definition of standards
and the reports in newspapers and journals on the growing number of participants
from 2,63 millions in 1990 to 9,99 millions in 1993. In December 1995
the number grew to 15 millions. In June 1993 130 sites were stored on
servers. Two years later pages of 23.500 sites could be called up online.
A proposition for a new project provided the impulse for a chain of developments
resulting in the web: In 12th November 1990 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert
Cailliau presented in "World Wide Web: Proposal for a HyperText Project"
the plan for a web constituted by linked hypertext documents to be stored
by the European Organization for Nuclear Research on several servers of
HyperText is a way to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will. It provides a single user-interface to large classes of information (reports, notes, data-bases, computer documentation and on-line help). We propose a simple scheme incorporating servers already available at CERN.
Berners-Lee and Cailliau suggested
that the implementation of simple browsers on "the user´s workstations"
provides accesses to the "Hypertext world". Furthermore applications
were planned enabling web participants to add documents. 2
This and the definition of protocols as binding guidelines for networks
between components of different types 3 constituted a
framework for the construction of a network between the CERN´s various
servers: The Web arose from a project of the European research center.
From 1990 to 1991 the Web Browser WorldWideWeb (December
1990), the first version of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP version
0.9, 1991, see below) and the tags of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML
tags, 1991, see below) were developed at the CERN. 4
Berners-Lee, Tim: Browser WorldWideWeb, 1990. Screenshot
of a NeXT Computer, CERN.
The browser "WorldWideWeb" was a means to
store and open files in formats (PostScript, films, sound files) supported
by the NeXT system (for computers made by NeXT). Files stored on FTP-
and HTTP-servers could be called up with "WorldWideWeb". The
browser contained a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) editor usable
to open pages in separate windows, to edit and to link them. If web participants
wanted to control presentations of the browser then they had to define
the properties of "basic style sheets" in using the "style
Pei-Yuan Wei was inspired by HyperCard when he developed the browser
"Viola WWW". In 1992 he presented the finished version for Unix´s
X Windowing System. In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina offered "Mosaic"
as a browser easy to install on the operating systems Windows, Mac OS
and Commodore Amiga. "Mosaic" became the most used browser followed
already at the end of 1994 by Andreessen´s "Netscape Navigator".
These are steps of the prehistory leading to the "browser war"
between Netscape and Microsoft. In 1998 the last one won the competition
with the "Internet Explorer". 5
Andreessen, Marc/Bina, Eric: Browser NCSA Mosaic 1.0,
1993. Screenshot of an Apple Computer with the operating system Mac OS
Technical standards are the precondition of the internet´s
data traffic. These standards are defined by protocols. The File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) was already used in the ARPANET since the seventies as
a part of the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
family of internet protocols and defines now the technical standards for
the uploading of files to servers. 6
For the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference
Model the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines
since 1983 the functions of seven layers, from the physical layer to the
application layer. The fourth layer defines the segmentation of the data
stream and the avoidance of the traffic congestion: The TCP determines
the function of the transport layer and offers a uniform technical basis
for the upper application-oriented layers (from the fifth to the seventh
layer). These layers are liberated by the flow control of the transport
layer (the fourth layer) from the transport tasks controling the physical
connection (the first layer), the transmission between nodes (the second
layer) and the routing to the destination layer (the third layer). For
the transmission with different systems of networking and telecommunication
the transport layer (the fourth layer) organises the segmentation of data
packets so that the application-oriented layers (from the fifth to the
seventh layer) process only byte streams similar to a computer´s
data transfer of a file from a hard disk or from a storage medium to the
working memory. 7
The seven layers of the OSI reference model (Yao: OSI
The data transfer between computers is regulated by
the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It was defined in 1996 by the W3 Consortium
and the Internet Task Force (IETF) in HTTP V 1.0. When the computer of
a web participant starts a request then the Transmission Control Protocol
establishes a connection to an HTTP server via a port (usually Port 80)
and finishes this process with either an error message or a connection.
The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) consists of
a locator (URL), marking the location of the computer storing the HTML
document to be found, and the name (URN) of this file. 9
Since 30th September 1998 the
Domain Name System (DNS) is coordinated by the Internet Corporation for
Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 10 The URL addresses
consist of letters and are stored and managed in a big database. The DNS
system coordinates the URL addresses with the IP addresses constituted
by ten digits. The IP addresses are the basic elements of the TCP/IP standards.
The providers´ DNS servers receive automatically the actual informations
being necessary for the coordination of URL addresses with IP addresses.
The DNS servers´ translations from the established URL addresses
to the IP addresses offer opportunities for censorship: By this intervention
not only specific webpages but all contents of a website are blocked.
The source code with commands
for browsers to present webpages is a further component of the web. The
"Standardized Generalized Markup Language" (SGML) was the basis
of the format that was used in documents at CERN (SGMLguid). In 1991 Tim
Berners-Lee defined in "HTML Tags" 20 HTML elements: Many of
them were influenced by SGMLguid. 12 In November 1995
Tim Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly determined the first official standard
HTML 2.0. In this document HTML is described within point 3 as "an
application of SGML". 13 The tags between angle
brackets as marks for commands and the oblique strokes for the ends of
commands reoccur from SGML to HTML in Tim Berners-Lee´s own
SGML was being used on CERN´s IBM
machines with a particular set of tags that were enclosed in angle brackets,
so HTML used the same tags wherever possible. 14
HTML and its extension to XHTML
15 became the standard types for documents to be presented
in web browsers. Film, image and sound files can be integrated into these
document types. 16 Net artists thematise since 1995
HTML in web projects (see chap. VI.3.2) and problematise since 1997 the
browser presentations of documents and links (see chap. VI.3.3).
Tim Berners-Lee wrote on his browser/editor
I never intended HTML source code...to be
seen by users...But the human readability of HTML was an unexpected boon.
To my surprise, people [at the CERN] quickly became familiar with the
tags and started writing their own HTML documents directly.
It is easy to learn to operate with the HTML code. This facilitates the
construction of web pages in writing the source code. It is not necessary
to write the sign combinations for links, anchors and other commands,
because they can be called up per mouse click with easy to use and freely
downloadable editors. If editors offer simple to use interfaces as work
surfaces hiding the source codes then they can cause traces in the source
code demonstrating the user´s inability to control the code. The
source codes presented by the browsers show the traces of editors as these
include, for example, unnecessary code elements or copyright informations
of the programming firm.
In comparison to the hyperfictions for CD-ROMS (see
chap. VI.2.2) early web projects by artists expose new scopes as results
of the possibilities to control the browser presentations of webpages
via their source codes. These include functional and graphical elements
like cells, frames and layers as well as possibilities to integrate files
stored on distant servers into one webpage. These codes include affordances
to observers to explore the functions embedded in browser presentations
and to reconstruct their programming. With this open relation between
code and presentation the web projects presented below contradict the
"dictatorship of the beautiful appearance" 18
determined by the "Graphical User Interfaces" (GUI) shown on
the screens of personal computers: The browsers include possibilities
to call up the source code and editors are means to modificate it in contrast
to code hiding interfaces with buttons for clicks activating functions.
The internet in times of the World Wide Web provokes doubts about the
achievements of the personal computers with their desktops and possibilities
to produce documents not only in a simplified manner but in a manner predetermined
by the programmers of the GUI.
Friese, Holger: unendlich, fast..., 1995, web project
Holger Friese´s "unendlich,
fast..."/"nearly infinite..." (1995) consists of a
browser field with a nearly complete blue surface. In the source code
bgcolor="#000088", the RGB
value for "Navy/low blue", determines the colour and its
extension is organized by repetitions of the command <br>, the code
for line breaks. In scrolling the blue plane in the browser up and down
two white signs can be found several times repeated within a narrow field:
There are stars and three lines with equal length arranged parallel above
each other. These signs can be called up neither as signs of the alphabet
nor as keys on manuals. Into the blue plane Friese integrated a screenshot
of a postscript file (file name: "ende.gif"). He writes on this
And that´s the true reason why the background is blue, it is a screenshot of a Postscript file (the data structure that´s sent to a laserprinter to draw a lemniscate) which had a blue background on a very old DOS operated computer. 19
The signs constitute "a lying eight, the sign
for infinity, in a form readable by computers." 20
The white signs of the image file appear on the monochrome plane isolated
and subtracted from their former context. The "infinite" blue
apears only "nearly" infinite, as the title says, because it
is interrupted by these white signs and has a finite height and width.
Jodi: wwwwwwwww.jodi.org, 1995, web project (screenshot
Jodi (Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans) connect in wwwwwwwww.jodi.org
(1995) graphically unusual designed webpages containing some text elements
with links often being recognisable only via cursor movements. Many pages
present repeated images. Some of the images or image series contain links
opening new images. The images are only seldom made with a digital camera.
More often two-dimensional computer graphics are presented, and sometimes
animated.gifs are shown. The HTML code is used to call up the same stored
images several times within a webpage. Text elements can be components
of the images as well as parts of the HTML document. HTML functions like
scrolling) as well as photo sequences in animated gifs are means to control
the `moving´ monitor presentations of the webpages. Some links are
designed via the tag <form action> as buttons with the forms of
Jodi: wwwwwwwww.jodi.org, 1995, web project: text becoming
visible after being marked by mouse-over (screenshot 2012).
"Accept" buttons are located under "agreement" declarations
parodying copyright regulations and disclaimers. The remark "Texts
for bots only" can be found in the source code of a page
whose browser presentation shows nothing more than the text "Worm
food" with an "accept" botton located below. The source
code includes word sequences like "hackcrackphreakwarez" and
hints to the culture of sharing open content ("warez") and the
hacker scene. If someones moves the cursor over the black field between
the "Worm Food" headline and the "accept" button then
he can read the text of the source code in black letters on blue background
as a part of the browser presentation.
Jodi: wwwwwwwww.jodi.org, 1995, web project: browser
presentation of the source code written in ASCII (screenshot 2012).
The first page presents in some
browsers a source code in ASCII flashing (not all browsers `blink´).
ASCII is an abbreviation for "American Standard Code for Information
Interchange" substituting letters by number combinations. Platforms
for ASCII Art collect
and store typograms created with ASCII elements forming patterns sometimes
looking either like diagrams or sometimes like pictures. Jodi uses the
browser to dissolve the configuration of ASCII elements with a figurative
contour on the level of the source code into an irritating sequence of
signs: lines, dashes, points and cyphers in repeating sequences and variations.
The whole field of this code presentation contains a link leading to another
page of this web project.
Jodi: wwwwwwwww.jodi.org, 1995, web project: a detail
of the first page´s source code (browser presentation, Screenshot
If these webpages and the relations between them
refer to a common concept then it is the variation of forms, not seldom
irritating because of the overall impression of repleteness. Jodi´s
manner to explore the possibilities to design webpages must have been
a provocation for observers interested in contemporary web design. 21
In "My boyfriend
came back from the war" (1996) Olia Lialina contitutes a hyperfiction
in concatenating webpages via frames (without scrollbars). The frames
enclose words, word combinations or sentences. Only a few frames include
images (without text), in one case also an animated gif. The frames are
divided up into `frames in frames´: In clicking on texts or images
within the frames links are activated causing the opening of new pages.
In the meantime the webpage is divided into further frames.
Lialina, Olia: My boyfriend came back from the war,
1996, web project (screenshot 2012).
In comparison to Douglas Carl Engelbart´s predigital model of notched
cards stringed together edge-to-edge (see chap. VI.2.1 with ann.12) the
cards or the contents of the frames in "My boyfriend came back from
the war" are digitally set `into motion´: from adjacent card
edges to a grid constituted by grey frames whose contents on black backgrounds
become `mobile´. The notches are substituted by Lialina´s
selection of links on fields within frames opening further frames within
Lialina, Olia: My boyfriend came back from the war,
1996, web project (screenshot 2012).
At the beginning the first frame
fills the screen over the entire height and contains an image of a window
at the top right as well as an image of a couple at the lower left. 22
After a click on the first frame´s couple appears on the right side
a second frame with a front view of Lialina´s face. The left frame
includes no further leading concatenation, meanwhile the right frame is
divided from click to click in further frames with texts and images. Clicks
on one of these frames cause at first changes in the frame content (images
or texts) and then a division of the frame in two or four further frames.
The end of the click sequences on frames causing their divisions is marked
by monochrome black fields as frame contents. At the lower right appears
not a further black field but instead a white frame presenting
as the source code tells the text "LOOK, it´s so beautiful"
in white letters on a white blackground. The text became visible in the
browser Netscape 4 by mouse over for a short time. Lialina wrote to Roberto
Simanowski about this presentation: "It was made invisible to be
an invisible link. You can see it if you select it." 23
A click on this white frame leads to a frame with a mailto-function to
Lialina´s e-mail address, and in the actual version (2012)
on a line under the mailto-function to a link leading to the platform
"Last Real Net
Art Museum" offering copies, variations and alternatives to Lialina´s
"My Boyfriend came back from the war" being programmed by artists
from 1998 to 2012.
Lialina, Olia: My boyfriend came back from the war,
1996, web project (screenshot 2012).
The history of a woman wanting to marry a soldier is laid out by Lialina
in a multi-branched but nevertheless sequential manner from left to right
and from top to bottom. Words in several adjacent frames point to narrative
interrelationships or yield parts of sentences being dissolved in further
The artist matches her narrative strategy with the
permutational possibilities of the frame combinations: The frame permutations
and the combinations of sentence fragments are coupled. Lialina uses a
frame-hypertext narrative strategy resulting in possibilities to play
with semantically occupied fields provoking readers to follow the prearranged
narrative direction. 24
Shulgin, Alexei: Form Art, 1997, web project (screenshot
Source codes built for purposes are showcased by
Alexei Shulgin purposeless in browser presentations. The title "Form
Art" (1997) recalls the HTML command for web
forms (<form>). Shulgin utilizes input fields, control bottons
are distributed on webpages. Clicks on the control bottons and checkboxes
open new browser windows demonstrating again constellations with input
fields, control boxes and checkboxes. 25 In "Form
Art" the forms are not used to send data to a server for further
processing but to activate functions of the artistic project´s webpages
like a marquee constituted by checkboxes.
The examples presented above are the results of experiments with the
possibilities of programming browser presentations with HTML: The relevant
browsers were Netscape Navigator 1 through 3 and Internet Explorer 1 through
3. The web projects presented below use uncommon link strategies to thematise
the internet as a developing public archive.
Shulgin, Alexei: Link X, 1996, web project (screenshot
Alex Shulgin in "Link
X" (1996) and Heath Bunting in "_readme
own, be owned, or remain invisible" (1998) selected words
for the construction of URL addresses: The artists set "www."
before the self chosen (Shulgin 26) or found words (Bunting
27) and added the top level domain ".com"
used world wide for commercial sites. Contrary to Heath Bunting´s
concentration on URL addresses ending with ".com" Shulgin changes
between ".org" and ".com" and the resulting URL addresses
lead in some cases to various websites. The words combined with links
in the way described led in the time of the projects´ creations
only seldom to documents meanwhile around 2000 unused URL addresses became
rare. The words readable in the browser presentations deliver materials
for the construction of links that can be used to explore the web as data
space. In the early phase of the web this strategy was an interesting
investigative attitude towards the arising data landscape.
Bunting, Heath: _readme own, be owned, or remain
invisible, 1998, web project (screenshot 2012).
URL addresses with the top-level domain .org are provided for organisations.
Despite nonexisting restrictions this top-level domain is used mostly
by organisations with charitable aims. The URL addresses of the top-level
domain .com are reserved for the e-commerce. Among them are the websites
of firms, often internationally operating corporations. If owners of websites
occupied URL addresses similar to firm names then either they could receive
money es a result of an out of court settlement for a voluntary cession,
or they were faced with claims and lawsuits.
In 1999 eToys, the American shipment of toys, tried to force the Swiss
artists´ group etoy in an out of court settlement to hand over their
URL address etoy.com. After an interlocutory
injunction the firm Network Solutions deleted etoy.com from the main register
of URL addresses in December 1999. Network Solutions was responsible for
the administration of .com addresses. Not only etoy´s website was
not accessible any more but their mailbox, too. This sanction was not
covered by the court decision.
After several negotiations without agreement the members of the Electronic
Disturbance Theater and RTMark followed a strategy putting eToys under
pressure at several levels until the management withdraw the lawsuit at
the beginning of 2000.
During the Christmas season in 1999 virtual sit-ins
were realised with the tool "FloodNet"
to prevent sales on the website eToys.com for a short time. With the use
of the software "FloodNet" developed by members of the group
Electronic Disturbance Theater not the content of a website being the
target is changed but the access is slowed down and blocked in extreme
cases. A java applet runs reload calls: In three parallel frames a website
is loaded in three-seconds-cycles. The server of a website is asked for
a non-existent URL address and the "server error log" indicates
its non-existence to web participants. Simultaneous FloodNet calls by
many web participants can cause an overload of the "server error
log". In these cases the accesses to targeted websites are blocked.
The virtual sit-ins were combined with a successful
press campaign. Both together damaged the image of eToys. The share price
decreased dramatically and in February 2001 eToys filed for bankruptcy
protection after disappointing Christmas sales. The "ToyWar"
demonstrates the appropriation of the data space by corporations. 29
Bunting´s textual instrument exploring the segmentation of the commercial
data space anticipates the problems causing etoys´ self defence.
The examples of HTML Art presented above explore web fundamentals and
lead the attention of web participants to HTML as a basic tool to create
webpages. The possibilities to use the web must not be prefabricated by
platforms such as social networks following frameworks mostly guided by
commercial interests, and it is not necessary to use only these platforms.
In the context of the web 1.0 e-commerce and the free exchange of informations
were opposites, meanwhile in the web 2.0 platforms support and promote
the exchange of informations between registered users because this boosts
the profit of the platform owners: For advertisers and platform owners
the users became game balls.
Contrary to that in the web 1.0 the net participants, while building
their own websites and using tactical tools like "FloodNet",
understood themselves as acting on their own behalf and according to their
own benchmarks. If these actors wanted to resist restrictions then they
organised campaigns and looked for participants. They used and use means
resulting from the tactical possibilities offered by the free web distribution
of informations and by activistic web tools being free of charge.
The examples presented in chapter
VI.3.2 demonstrate the programming for browser presentations and the use
of links as accesses to site-external webpages. The examples chosen for
this chapter bring these two aspects together in their ways to thematise
browser functions: They present not only browser functions (art for browsers)
but also alternatives to popular web browsers (art as browser) being offered
by Netscape and Microsoft (Internet Explorer).
The Web is used as a resource
for data accesses in "without
addresses" (1997) by Joachim
Blank and Karl-Heinz Jeron 30 as well as in Mark
Shredder" (1998). 31 These projects offer web
participants possibilities to select accesses to documents stored on servers
connected via the internet, but both projects do not offer ways to influence
the modification of these webpages. Meanwhile Napier makes the input of
an URL address possible, "without addresses" provokes web participants
with the question "tell me who you are" to write entries. Then
it uses these entries as keywords in search systems (Altavista und Yahoo),
selects a webpage and constructs with it a new webpage. The selected URL
address is noted on the transformed document. This document is stored
in an archive.
Blank, Joachim/Jeron, Karl-Heinz: without addresses,
1997, web project (illustrations of the project
documentation by Blank & Jeron).
Modified webpages are stored in "The Shredder´s" archive.
In contrast to the access to these files in "without addresses"
a blue-white map offers a controlled access to the archive´s recently
stored and transformed webpages. If a web participant moves the cursor
over the map (without street names) partitioned in fields then the line
in a text box changes. This text line consists of an IP address of the
web participant and his entries.
In "without addresses" the answers to the question "tell
me who you are" are used to generate and store entries of the map
fields´ virtual habitants. Mouse clicks on the map fields´
orange points open the files containing the informations on the virtual
habitants. The files generated by an algorithm using the input of web
participants contain the pseudo-identities of a fictive town´s inhabitants.
Napier, Mark: The Shredder, 1998, web project (screenshot
"Without addresses" and "The Shredder" transform
the lay-out of the found webpages. In "without addresses" the
text found via search systems and transformed in a digital handwritten-like
font overlies a picture taken from the source document. From the webpages
being called up by net participants in entering URL addresses "The
Shredder" shows on the top left side of the transformed webpage the
links included in the source document as lines overlapping each other.
This column presenting links overlies the images shown distorted and overlapping:
With the measures of length and width the proportions of the images are
changed. In these distorting manner the illustrations are integrated into
the transformed webpage. The source code is shown in little and overlapping
letters on the left column. Fragments of the source code appear in big
letters in a second column moved to the right. These letters lay over
the letters of the left column.
"Without addresses" and "The Shredder" use arbitrary
documents called up in the net as basic materials for the computing processes
controlled by algorithms. The results of the computing processes on servers
controlled by Perl partially still allow to reconstruct the orignal elements.
The two projects by Blank & Jeron and Napier demonstrate the relation
between the source code and the browser presentation as depending on a
modifiable technical configuration. The following projects add to the
browsers for presentations of webpages alternative browsers presenting
aspects of the data traffic.
Projects modifying webpages on the server side like
Napier´s "The Shredder" are labeled as "art browsers"
and distinguished from "browser art" like Shulgin´s "Form
Art" (see chap. VI.3.2). 32 But then it is impossible
to designate the alternative browsers as "browser art". The
most obvious and in the following chosen way out of the resulting terminology
confusion is to designate only projects as "art browsers" making
alternative browsers available for download: Projects by Blank & Jeron
and Napier modifying presentations within available browsers are not categorised
as "art browsers".
I/O/D: Web Stalker, 1997, browser (photo from the monitor,
The art browsers "Web
Stalker" by I/O/D (Matthew Fuller, Colin Green, Simon Pope, 1997)
33 and Maciej Wisniewski´s "Netomat"
(1999) 34 thematise the data flow provoked by links
and search systems. They addressed aspects not presented by the most used
contemporary browsers (Internet Explorer, Netscape Communicator): the
data traffic between servers initiated by the URL addresses in links.
"Web Stalker" visualised the relations between linked webpages
diagrammatically as an ongoing process capturing the documents from link
to link via crawler, meanwhile in "Netomat" links of search
systems are used to present the found files with their contents as a data
stream of findings.
After the "Web Stalker" was downloaded and opened, a void,
monochrome black or selectable purple or blue window appears. Users drag
rectangles and correlate them with the functions described below. Each
user cares for visual clarity in selecting the windows´ functions,
sizes and locations.
After the input of an URL address "Web Stalker" starts to look
for the links of this webpage, then follows the links of the linked webpages,
and so forth. A diagram ("Map") visualises this link structure
as an ongoing computing process. Webpages are represented as circles and
the links as lines. With the growing amount of links the circles become
brighter. The "crawler" shows the URL address it is dealing
with actually. A scale visualises how much of a webpage´s source
code the "Web Stalker" has investigated. "HTML stream"
presents the source code as a part of the dataflow grasped by the crawler
and directed by the links from document to document. The "Dismantler"
enables users to draw circles out of other windows (drag and drop). The
"Dismantler" preserves the link structure of an URL address,
as it is presented in the diagram with circles and lines. Users can select
via clicks on circles the URL addresses indicated at the upper side of
"Dismantler´s" and "Stash´s" rectangles.
If such a circle is dragged into "Extract" then a text is presented
being the result of a readout of the source code and the computing processes
initiated by this code. This text can be stored as .txt file. If circles
are dragged into "Stash" then the URL addresses can be stored
in a text file. These addresses can be copied and called up with an usual
Wisniewski, Maciej: Netomat, 1999, browser (photo from
the monitor, October 2000).
"Netomat" shows a data stream of images
(ignored by the "Web Stalker") and text fragments. 35
If the "Netomat" is started after the activation of a web connection
then the art browser begins its data access. In the browser window on
the bottom right "Netomat" informs how many text, image and
sound files are activated. The direction and speed of the data flow on
the browser presentation can be modified with cursor movements. If the
cursor position is directed from the centre to an edge then the presentation
of the data stream is accelerated. The flow direction changes contrary
to the cursor movements. A text input in the bottom line starts a new
data stream after the Enter key is pressed. Because the memory function
can´t be stopped the files indicated in elder data streams don´t
disappear after the start of a new stream. Appearing text fragments can
supply suggestions to further text inputs provoking the integration of
new documents in the visualisation of memorised elements.
Wisniewski prevents directed data access. Text input causes surprise
findings without enabling users to select elements out of the data stream
and to recontextualise them: The browser surface presenting the data stream
does not contain click functions.
"Netomat´s" use of documents found in the web dissolves
the data constellations being defined by the source codes for the browser
presentations of webpages: Texts are fragmented and pictures isolated.
The "Netomat" substitutes the usual browser presentation of
static webpages by the presentation of a data flow. This flow doesn´t
loose its character to pass found web documents over to the user while
he is tipping further text fragments: The surprising findings the
images and texts can´t be substituted by results of a targeted
search for specific topics.
Instead of the "Netomat´s" exploration of the content
of webpages, the "Web Stalker" visualises the dial-up progressing
from link to link: The computing processes for the connection buildup
cause progressing diagram configurations.
Jevbratt, Lisa: 1:1, every IP, 1999, 2001-2002, web
project (screenshot 2009).
The web as an expanding archive of files linked to
each other is tapped by the "Web Stalker" only partially starting
with an URL address chosen by a web participant. Lisa
(1999, actualised in 2001-2) visualises the IP addresses of homepages
found by crawlers. The overview demonstrates a Web 1.0 with an amount
of websites that could seem to be not too big for a data visualisation
of them all. Nevertheless in 1999 a crawler needed too much time to capture
all available IP addresses of homepages. A crawler of the artists´
group C5, with Jevbratt as its member, gathered "two percent of the
spectrum and 186,100 sites were included in the database." 36
In Jevbratt´s visualisations of the accessable homepages, for example
IP", the clarity of the visual arrangement and its combination
with functionality (the links to the webpages) suffer from the mass of
found IP addresses.
DNS servers translate the URL addresses of websites in IP addresses (see
chap. VI.3.1). Jevbratt´s visualisations present the IP addresses
of homepages as a dataspace with its own `geography´: The IP addresses
with 10 numbers make it possible to define `distances´ close
and distant relations between them.
Katastrofsky, Carlos: Area Research, 2004, web project
The projects "Neighbourhood
Research" and "Area
Research" (2004) by Carlos Katastrofsky (Michael
Kargl) thematise the proximity or distance of IP addresses in searching
for nearby IP addresses to the URL addresses inputted by web participants.
In Katastrofsky´s projects the process of searching can be repeated
by the input of further URL addresses, meanwhile Jevbratt visualises the
results of two finished crawler actions (1999, 2001-2). The projects by
Jevbratt and Katastrofsky complement the aspects of web data traffic shown
by the art browsers "Web Stalker" and "Netomat".
The art browsers "Web Stalker" and "Netomat"
are yielding for experimental more than for instrumentalising and target-oriented
observation-manners. Aspects of the semantic web (as a vocabulary used
by humans in speach acts and connected to semantic fields) are of primary
importance in collaborative writing projects with databases as stores
for contributions (see chap. VI.2.3), meanwhile the art browsers show
technical procedures. The two levels of information in a technical and
semantic context thematised in cybernetics (see chap. II) and information
aesthetics (see chap. III) remain important aspects of a "problematic".
VI.3.4 Net art, Context Art and Media
The relation between cybernetic models (see chap. II.2) and cybernetic
sculptures (see chap. II.3) can be understood as a prefiguration of the
relation between models of a net practice and net art: Just as the cybernetics´
concept of models defines a relation between theoretical statements and
a built model (model level 1) and demonstrates with it possibilities to
artists how they can install machining processes gaining the status of
models as exemplary realisations (models level 2), so the net art tries
to realise a net practice being exemplary in a non-commercial information
context as net activists defended it against hazards: The free information
exchange in a deterritorialised data world becomes a model (model level
In the web the term "art" does not signify a status declared
by institutions and defined within discourses but a provision of models
being technically successful as well as an offer for the observation of
net conditions: They are models for an exemplary net practice (model level
2). Net activists feel themselves obliged to react to critical observations
of net conditions in demonstrating who how and with which interests determines
these conditions or tries to change them. This causes net art to demonstrate
the consequences of the confrontations of interests and power structures.
Collaborative writing projects
(see chap. VI.2.3) and alternative browsers (see chap. VI.3.3) offer web
practices provoking net observations (as reflexions). Either the daily
routines of web participants calling up prepared unchangeable contents
are questioned by models of participation, or the preconditions are created
for critical observations of the net conditions being basic for the quotidian
supply of documents.
In the context of the experimental video culture in the seventies Dan
Sandin and Phil Morton extended the "Analog Image Processor"
to an open platform for developers and provided with the "Copy-It-Right-Licence"
an early example for Open Source and Open Content (see chap. IV.1). This
open form to distribute products integrated artists of the demoscene in
the eighties into their common ways to develop the programming of personal
computers (see chap. IV.184.108.40.206) and to use later the internet´s
possibilities for a no-cost distribution of their animation codes.
In comparison to elder media the web facilitates works-in-progress for
the development of software (Open Source) or for the construction of knowledge
systems (Open Content) meanwhile commercial oriented producers try to
establish closed systems in the form of scarce and costly final products.
On the one hand the barrier between producer and consumer vanishes in
the gift economy, on the other hand this barrier is uphold by the distributors
and salesmen. One of the effects of the web is a wider gap between the
open source model with an unlimited distribution and a cooperative production
on the one hand and, on the other hand, the commercial distribution models
now augmented by e-commerce with a digital rights management based on
software for copy-restriction mechanisms to be installed on the computers
of the customers.
Since 1999 the relations between Open Source, Open Content and new distribution
models were discussed on four Oekonux
Stallman, Eric Steven
Raymond, Richard Barbrook,
John Perry Barlow and Lawrence
Lessig became in the eighties and nineties the most famous net activists
writing on Open Source and Open Content.
In net activism restrictions for further developments of software and
its distribution by copyright and patent laws were and are discussed as
barriers blocking a free exchange of data and a cooperative development
of software. This activism fights against economic, juridical and technical
obstacles restricting a free data exchange. Platforms like "Illegal
Art" (2002-6, now only parts of the original web contents are stored
in the Internet Archive: sound,
video) and "Kingdom
of Piracy" (2002-6) show how artists thematise basic problems
of web usage and their working conditions restricted by copyright and
patent laws. The technical, economic and legal conditions for the accesses
to data as well as for the downloads, modifications and distributions
of files constitute an important part of net art´s context. If projects
of net artists show web conditions in an exemplary manner and demonstrate
the tensions between technical possibilities and restrictions by proprietary
practices then the projects become either a part of net activism (Negativland/Tom
Maloney, see below) or they transgress for example by the provision
of tools (model level 2) the limits of art towards activism (The
Yes Men, see below).
Medosch. Armin (Hg.): DIVE: An Introduction into the
World of Free Software and Copyleft Culture, FACT in Liverpool, 2003,
web plattform (screenshot 2012).
The comprehensive project "DIVE:
An Introduction into the World of Free Software and Copyleft Culture"
was integrated into the platform "Kingdom of Piracy". "DIVE"
focuses on relations between software development and a free distribution
(Open Source) without the restriction practices supported by copyright
and patent laws. With "DIVE" "Kingdom of Piracy" became
in 2003 the most comprehensive and most concise platform for relations
between free software, net activism and net art.
The Yes Men/Detritus/Doll, Cue P.: Reamweaver Version
2.0, tool, 2002. Screenshot of the creation of a pseudo-mirror site of
the World Trade Organization´s website.
One of the activistic projects of the platform was "The Yes Men´s
Reamweaver". In 2002 Gladwin Muraroa of The
Yes Men, Nickie Halflinger of Detritus
and Cue P. Doll (Amy
Alexander) developed "Reamweaver
Version 2.0" with Perl. If the tool for automated modifications of
sites was installed via FTP access on a server than it enabled web participants
to create parodying pseudo-mirror sites (They seem to be a `mirror´
or the copy of a site with another URL address but with their modifications
they comment the copied sites). "Reamweaver" was launched by
RTMark and supported by interested web participants. 38
Fakes of the World Trade Organization´s (WTO) site are examples
of the tool´s uses. 39 When critical pseudo-mirror
sites are censored then "Reamweaver" enables web participants
to create in a short time-span new counterfeits with further critical
and parodying statements.
First page of a two-page invitation
of the Media Tank to "Illegal Art Extravaganza", the special events to
the travel exhibition "Illegal Art: Freedom of Expression in the Corporate
Age", Old City´s Nexus Gallery, Philadelphia 2003.
Carrie McLaren, editor of the "Stay Free Magazine", curated
exhibition "Illegal Art: Freedom of Expression in the Corporate
Age". The exhibition and its site presented many examples from art,
film and music showing repetitions and modifications of copyright protected
sources. Legal protection was provided by the Chilling
Effects Clearinghouse. In this association the Electronic
Frontier Foundation and the law schools of five American universities
collaborated (Berkman Center for Internet & Society/Harvard University,
Stanford Center for Internet & Society, Samuelson Law/Technology and Public
Policy Clinic, University of California, University of San Francisco Law
School, University of Maine School of Law).
The copyright does not protect authors against the exploiters of their
rights. Rather the copyright is used by exploiters as a means to establish
connections between the exploit of rights and jurisdiction in a strategically
calculated manner disempowering authors (Links to the webpage "Copyright
Articles" connected to texts about abuses by the copyright industry).
The website of the exhibition presented film extracts, animations, musical
works and artworks in different media partially with their history
of jurisdiction: Some lawsuits were not completed by a judgement in the
time of the travel exhibition´s presentations. The complaints ("cease-and-desist-orders")
of the copyrights´ owners and exploiters disregard often "Fair
Use" (see below), nevertheless the defendents frequently relent before
a lawsuit starts because these lawsuits last long and the financial expenses
The curator´s intention
was to present to a broad public the misuse of the copyright as a restraint
of artistic creativity instead of its protection 40
and to disturb the copyright industry´s lobbying and accusatorial
practice. The exhibition offered to authors of newspaper reports an occasion
to discuss the perversion of the copyright into a Corporate Right. 41
Beside the San Francisco Museum of Art no other museum with a wider collection
of 20th century art exhibited "Illegal Art", even though they
are affected by the effects of an accusatorial practice disregarding "Fair
Use": Neither Marcel Duchamp´s L.H.O.O.Q.
(1919) nor Pop Art could be created under contemporary legal relationships.
The copyright industry stigmatises
takeovers of some parts of an art work protected by copyright as piracy,
as intellectual property theft. "Illegal Art" exhibits examples
of the ways artists use procedures to copy and quote with mostly
ironic defamiliarizations or alienations. This "recombinant
theater" 42 parodies and comments the contemporary
mass culture by its manners to pick specific objects up. The technical
possibilities of precise digital copies without losses in quality are
used in procedures of appropriation and modification to articulate criticism
of the mass media´s spectacle organisation. Procedures of quotation,
plagiarism and transformation are used for an unveiling, exaggerating
or alienating criticism of economic and social conditions; takeovers "for
purposes such as criticism, comment..." permits the "Fair Use
Doctrine" of the US law. 43 Entertaining modes
of recycling and activistic-critical recombining strategies are (combinable)
takeover practices to intervene in strategies of the copyright industry
(corporations and their lawyers) to control the use and distribution of
the mass culture´s signs. On this point we are faced with artistic
and activist (re-)appropriations.
The website of "Illegal Art" itself was
an example for the procedures of a "communication guerilla"
44 using strategies of (re-)appropriation ironically:
When the homepage was opened then a window started presenting the following
text: "ELECTRONIC END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR VIEWING ILLEGAL
ART EXHIBIT WEBSITE AND FOR USE OF LUMBER AND/OR PET OWNERSHIP".
As soon as a reader of this parody of a license clicked on "I agree"
then the contract and the homepage disappeared.
"Illegal Art" was conceived as a plea for an extension of the
"Fair Use Doctrine´s" applicability. This extension is
a conclusion drawn from the practices of the (re-)appropriation culture.
Negativland outlined applications
of the "Fair Use Doctrine" being adequate from their point of
...we would have the protections and payments to artists and their administrators restricted to the straight-across usage of entire works by others, or for any form of usage at all by commercial advertisers. Beyond that, creators would be free to incorporate fragments from the creations of others into their own work. 45
Negativland/Maloney, Tim: Gimme the Mermaid, film,
Negativland and the former Disney film animator Tim
Maloney assembled different sources in creating Gimme
the Mermaid (2000/2002, an exhibit of "Illegal Art") as
a comment on the behaviours of owners and administrators of copyrights.
Copyrights protect properties and property is an important part in an
economic-based power structure: Copyrights save property and property
is power. A telephone voice of a lawyer for the music industry was visualised
as the speech of the mermaid Arielle (the figure was a part of a Disney
production) and was set to music in creating a cover version of Black
Gimme Gimme: "I own it or I control it...You can´t use it without
my permission." The decision on the appropriation of a copyright
protected "it" is not taken by the critic but by the criticized
person: That´s the situation the "Fair Use Doctrine" should
prevent. The barriers for the downloads and further processing created
by one-sided interpretations of the copyrights and the "Digital Millenium
Copyright Act" (DMCA) 46 threaten the net architecture
created for free access.
Art forms and their distribution in legal, economic and media contexts
determine each other. Because the production of art can´t be separated
from production conditions as artists thematise them via critical self-embedding.
If Tim Maloney shows the strategies of copyright administrators with the
means the administrators tried to prevent then he needs a good defender.
In "Illegal Art" the practice to bundle activist efforts is
organised as legal assistance for artists creating test cases for legal
proceedings. After the verdicts for or against the works featured in "Illegal
Art" it is possible in comparable cases to anticipate future verdicts.
Dr. Thomas Dreher
Homepage with numerous articles
on art history since the sixties, a. o. on Concept Art and Intermedia
Copyright © (as defined in Creative
Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial 1.0) by the author, August
2012 and March 2014 (German version)/March 2014 (English version).
This work may be copied in noncommercial contexts if proper credit is
given to the author and IASL online.
For other permission, please contact IASL
Do you want to send us your opinion or a tip? Then send us an e-mail.
1 Arns: Netzkulturen 2002, p.21s.; Berners-Lee: Web
1999, S.69,72ss.,79,97ss; Gere: Culture 2008, p.152s.; Warnke: Theorien
2011, p.49,52; Weiß: Netzkunst 2009, p.30s.
On the growth of the amount of users from 1995 to 2002 and the number
of websites from 1993 to 2002: Matis: Wundermaschine 2002, p.312s.; Warnke:
Theorien 2011, p.48s. Cf. Hyperakt/Vizzuality/Google Chrome Team: Evolution
(2012): In 2011 2.27 milliard participants used the web. back
2 Berners-Lee/Cailliau: WorldWideWeb 1990. back
3 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.33-37. back
4 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.28-31,38-45. back
5 Browser "WorldWideWeb": Berners-Lee: Web
1999, p.45s.; Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb Browser o.J.; Matis: Wundermaschine
2002, p.311; Wikipedia: WorldWideWeb 2012.
Other browsers: Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.56s.,64,67; Matis: Wundermaschine
2002, p.315s. back
6 FTP: Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.36.
TCP/IP: Plate: Grundlagen 2012, chap.
11: TCP/IP; Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.43-46,51. back
7 Bunz: Speicher 2009, p.100-106; Kahnwald: Netzkunst
2006, p.49s.; Plate: Grundlagen 2012, chap.
11: TCP/IP; Weiß: Netzkunst 2009, p.37ss.,41s. back
8 HTTP V 1.0: Request for Comments/RFC
1945. Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.86-90. back
9 Since 2002 defined in RFC
3305. Precursor: RFC 1630,
1994 and others. Executing scientists: W3 Consortium/IETF (Berners-Lee:
Web 1999, p.36s.,39s.). back
10 Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.64; Weiß: Netzkunst
2009, p.36. back
11 Postel: Domain 1983 (RFC
881); Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.62-76; Weiß: Netzkunst 2009,
Censorship with DNS filter, an example: Dreher: Link 2002-2006, chap.
12 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.41s.; Palmer: History undated;
WWW Consortium: HTML 1992. back
13 Berners-Lee/Connolly: Hypertext 1995 (RFC
14 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.42 (quotation),41-44. back
15 XHTML 1.0, January 2000, reformulation of HTML 4.01:
WWW Consortium: XHTML 2000/2002. back
16 Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.96s.; Weiß: Netzkunst
17 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.42. back
18 "Dictatorship of the beautiful appearance"/"Diktatur
des schönen Scheins": Stephenson: Diktatur 2002 (German title
of Stephenson: Beginning 1999).
In a lecture Holger Friese demonstrated the recognizable traces of the
"Großes Data Becker Homepage Paket": "Das
kleine Homepagepaket", shift e.V., Berlin, 1/23/1999 (Dreher:
Unendlich 2001). back
19 Friese: Selection 2008, p.24s. back
20 Friese: Artworks 2008.
Lit.: Dreher: Unendlich 2001; Rinagl/Thalmair/Dreher: Monochromacity 2011;
Vannucchi: Friese 1999. back
21 Berry: Thematics 2001, p.84s.; Cramer: Discordia
2002, p.71,75,78; Cramer: Statements 2011, p.235ss.,243; Greene: Internet
2004, p.40s.; Kerscher: Bild 1999, p.110. back
22 Lialina and a filmmaker at Moscow´s film club
"CinePhantom". Further pictures are based on stills "from
the Hollywood film `Broken Arrow´" (Baumgärtel: [net.art]
1999, p.129). back
23 Simanowski: Hypertext 2001, part
4; Simanowski: Interfictions 2002, p.95s. back
24 Compare the opposite explanations of the relation
frame narration by Julian Stallabrass and Roberto Simanowski: According
to Stallabrass the observers click "through screens without orientation"
(Stallabrass: Internet 2003, p.58s.), meanwhile according to Simanowski
the "reading process follows the [narrative] linearity fairly close"
(Simanowski: Interfictions 2002, p.93. Cf. Berry: Thematics 2001, p.80ss.;
Manovich: Language 2001, p.324s.). back
25 With scripts developed by Laszlo Valko. Lit.: Greene:
Internet 2004, p.80s. with ill.54; Weiß: Netzkunst 2009, p.203-235,
26 Greene: Internet 2004, p.42s. with ill.23. back
27 Heath Bunting repeats the text of the following
newspaper article: Flint, James: The Power of Disbelief. In: The Daily
Telegraph, 4/8/1997 (on Heath Bunting). Lit.: Arns: Netzkulturen 2002,
p.67s.; Arns: Readme 2006; Berry: Thematics 2001, p.196-199; Greene: Internet
2004, p.42-45; Heibach: Literatur 2003, p.110s.; Stallabrass: Internet
2003, p.29s. back
28 Dreher: Radical Software 2004, chap. Electronic
Disturbance: Tools, Sites & Strategien. back
29 "Toywar": Arns: Netzkulturen 2002, p.62-65;
Arns: Toy 2002, p.56-59; Drühl: Künstler 2006, p.283-293; Greene:
Internet 2004, p.125ss.; Grether: Etoy 2000; Gürler: Strategien 2001,
chap. Toywar; Paul: Art 2003, p.208s.; Richard: Anfang 2001, p.213-223;
Richard: Business 2000; Stallabrass: Internet 2003, p.96-101; Weiß:
Netzkunst 2009, p.199,254-265; Wishart/Bochsler: Reality 2002. back
30 "Without addresses" is no longer stored
on a web server. It was "programmed with Perl and Postscript. The
resulting Postscript file was rendered to a GIF file in using pbmplus."
(Karl-Heinz Jeron, e-Mail 8/15/2012, in German) Lit.: Blase: Street 1997;
Dreher: Stadt 2000, chap. without
addresses; Gohlke: Go o.J.; Huber: Browser 1998, chap. 4.1 Joachim
Blank/Karl-Heinz Jeron: without addresses. back
31 "The Shredder" was programmed in Perl
2006, p.18s.; Napier: Shredder 1999; Napier: Shredder 2001; Simanowski:
Interfictions 2002, p.151,161; Stallabrass: Internet 2003, p.47. back
32 Kahnwald: Netzkunst 2006, p.7-11. Cf. Galloway:
Browser 1998; Simanowski: Interfictions 2002, p.165,151 (Simanowski labels
"The Shredder" and I/O/D´s "Web Stalker" presented
below as "art browsers"); Maciej Wisniewski in Hadler: Informationschoreographie
undated: "The `Netomat´ is no longer a browser art but rather
an art browser."
Overviews on alternative browsers were offered by the Browserdays
being organised in different cities (Amsterdam, Berlin, New York) and
in 2001 at the "Browsercheck"
presented in Berlin at "raum 3" "under everyday conditions".
33 "Web Stalker" was developed in Lingo,
the programming language for Macromedia Director. Lit.: Baumgärtel:
Browserkunst 1999, p.88,90; Baumgärtel: [net.art] 1999, p.152-157;
Dreher: Politics 2001, chap. I/O/D:
Web Stalker; Fuller: Means 1998; Gohlke: Software 2003, p.58s.; Greene:
Internet 2004, p.78,84-87; Heibach: Literatur 2003, p.213s.; Kahnwald:
Netzkunst 2006, p.16ss.; Manovich: Language 2001, p.76; Paul: Art 2003,
p.118s.; Simanowski: Interfictions 2002, p.165s.; Stallabrass: Internet
2003, p.21,23,39,55,126; Weibel/Druckrey: net_condition 2001, p.276s.;
Weiß: Netzkunst 2009, p.235-242. back
34 Dreher: Informationschoreografie 2000, chap. Netomat;
Fourmentraux: Art 2005, p.86s.; Greene: Internet 2004, p.131; Heibach:
Literatur 2003, p.214; Kahnwald: Netzkunst 2006, p.21s.,40s.; Manovich:
Language 2001, p.31,76; Stallabrass: Internet 2003, p.126; Weibel/Druckrey:
net_condition 2001, p.80s. back
35 In 2000 the author could not call up the sound files
on Windows 98. According to Wisniewski it was possible to call the sound
files with fast connections, meanwhile low connections required to deactivate
the sound function. Wisniewski offers not any more the download of "Netomat"
on netomat.net. Also the documentation
offered by Wisniewski on this site is no longer available. back
36 Jevbratt: 1:1 2002. Cf. Jevbratt: Infome 2003, chap.
abstract reality: "1:1 was originally created in 1999 and it consisted
of a database that would eventually contain the addresses of every Web
site in the world and interfaces through which to view and use the database.
Crawlers were sent out on the Web to determine whether there was a Web
site at a specific numerical address. If a site existed, whether it was
accessible to the public or not, the address was stored in the database.
The crawlers didn't start on the first IP address going to the last; instead
they searched selected samples of all the IP numbers, slowly zooming in
on the numerical spectrum. Because of the interlaced nature of the search,
the database could in itself at any given point be considered a snapshot
or portrait of the Web, revealing not a slice but an image of the Web,
with increasing resolution."
Lit.: Baumgärtel: [net.art 2.0] 2001, p.192-197; Munster: Media 2006,
p.82ss.; Paul: Art 2003, p.181s. back
Althusser: Marx 1969, p.32,34ss.; Art & LanguageNY: Blurting 1973,
The data visualisation "Small
Talk" (2009) by Use All Five, Inc. maps a social network ("Twitter")
according to semantic critieria. back
38 RTMark: Reamweaver 2002: "The Reamweaver software...allows
users to instantly `funhouse-mirror´ anyone's website in real time,
while changing any words that they choose." back
39 From http://www.wto.org
to http://www.gatt.org (8/5/2012) and
to http://www.wtoo.org/ (12/14/2003, not found any more in 8/5/2012. Screenshot
of the creation with "Reamweaver" in the NETescopio database:
proyecto/ 0220/ reamweaver_samples/ wtocompare.jpg (3/9/2014)). back
40 Heins: Progress 2003. back
41 F.e. Dawson: Art 2003; Lotozo 2003; Nelson: Exhibition
42 Critical Art Ensemble: Disturbance 1994, Chapter
43 Without author: United States Code undated (Title
17: Copyrights, Chapter 1, Section 107). back
44 Autonome a.f.r.i.k.a. gruppe/Blissett, Luther/Brünzels,
Sonja: Handbuch 1997/2001. back
45 Negativland: Fair Use undated. back
46 Without author: U.S. Copyright 1998. back
Table of Contents |
Bibliography | Next Chapter
[ Top |
Index NetArt |
NetArt Theory | Home