IASLonline NetArt: Theorie
History of Computer Art
VI. Net Art: Networks, Participation, Hypertext
VI.1 Computer Networks
VI.1.1 From Timesharing to the Internet
In the sixties and seventies American scientists asked if computers can´t
be used for other purposes than for calculation tasks. The quest for alternative
functions led to efforts to develop adequate interfaces for terminals
serving as accesses to central mainframe computers and as a means to communicate
with participants on other terminals (see chap. VI.2.1).
After the development of solutions for "multi-tasking" by dividing
a processor´s capacities the computer researchers worked out "multi-access".
It offers accesses from several terminals or "operators" to
a central computer:
...during the normal running of the machine
several operators are using the machine during the same time. To each
of these operators the machine appears to behave as a separate machine.
Between 1957 and 1959 the concept
for timesharing was developed to ameliorate the use of the computing power.
Timesharing made possible a better utilisation of computer capacities
being accessible from various terminals. Since 1964 the first workable
timesharing systems were realised. 2 These systems subdivided
the computing time of a computer in sections lasting milliseconds and
distributed these sections to the programmes started by the participants
on the terminals. The time needed by a computer to response via timesharing
to requests by terminals rested within the "timespan of seconds".
the sixties Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider and Douglas
Carl Engelbart conceptualise the interface between humans and computers
as a cooperation of several participants using the same "intelligence
augmenting tool" 4 for operations with "symbols"
5: to store character strings, to retrieve documents
from the memory, to process these data and to store the processed data.
6 A keyboard and an electronic pen or a mouse are the
means to process characters presented on a monitor. With these means functions
can be easily activated. 7 Computers formerly used as
calculators can be used with these forerunners of menus´ icons dominantly
to process text and graphics.
Wilson, Roland B.: Cartoons for Joseph Carl Robnet
Licklider´s and Robert W. Taylor´s "The Computer as Communication
Device", 1968 (Licklider/Taylor: Computer 1968/1990, p.26).
During the sixties and the seventies the development of the human-computer
interface and the development of computer networks are joined: The terminals
connected with mainframe computers via timesharing are replaced by computers
connected to networks via high performance cables. The interfaces of these
computers (keyboard, mouse, desktop, see chap. VI.2.1, VII.2) anticipate
the interfaces being usual by the personal computers since the eighties.
Since the end
of June 1970 the XEROX Palo Alto Research Center is formed as a private
research organisation. There William K. English, Alan C. Kay, Robert M.
Metcalfe, George E. Pake, Robert W. Taylor, Larry Tesler, John Warnock
and others develop networks between microcomputers, the Alto (1972/73)
as a precursor of the eighties personal computers. 8
After the local area networks with terminals connected to mainframe computers
9 the ARPANET was first installed in 1969 as a new development
of networks. It connected the computers of American universities working
on military projects via cable systems (Ethernet) using dedicated lines
faster than telephone cables. 10 In the eighties further
networks were installed for specific research projects like MILNET (Military
Network, since 1983), BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork), WSFNET (National
Science Foundation Network) and CSNET (Computer Science Network). 11
A technical precondition of the
internet developed Paul Baran with his concept for "packet switching"
dividing digitised elements in packets and adding informations being necessary
for the recombinations after the posting of the packets via varying connections
(cables and hosts) to the target computer. "Nodes" (hosts) receive
the packets and send them to the next well-functioning "node"
("rapid store-and-forward design"). Non-functional "nodes"
are circumvented. With this concept Baran formed in 1964 the basis for
decentral networking. 12 Between 1968 and 1970 the members
of the Internet Message Processing (IMP) Group Will Crowther and Dave
Walden solved the routing problems of the "packet switching"
for the ARPANET with only 150 instructions in machine language. This was
only one tenth of the number of commands determined as acceptable in the
definition of the framework conditions for the ARPANET´s development.
Baran, Paul: The Spectrum of System Connectivity, 1964
(Baran: Communications V 1964, p.6, fig.1).
Protocols code and decode the
data packets. In 1970/71 the transfer of data from one computer to another
was made possible by the file transfer protocol (FTP). 14
In the ARPANET the TCP/IP protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) coordinated the transfer of data packets between networks. This
protocol constituted the fundament of the later developed internet and
its protocol layers. 15
the high capacity cables of the ARPANET networks were built in the eighties
connecting personal computers via telecommunication in using modems with
acoustic coupler on which the telephones´ handsets had to be placed.
The dial-in procedures with the program MODEM to bulletin board systems,
newsgroups and MUD´s 16 were complicated. Before
the Mosaic Browser (since 1993) was developed for the World Wide Web 17
participants operated in the internet in using commands that had to be
learned. 18 Since 1980 the timesharing services being
offered on universities´ computers were used to built the first
nodes between the networks. These nodes constituted the fundament for
the server structure of the internet being extended in the nineties. 19
During the eighties and the early
nineties the participants of Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) developed an
awareness of "virtual communities" 20 communicating
with each other in writing from remote places without time delay. The
free and open software of networks constantly developed further as well
as the abolished division between readers and authors (see chap. VI.1.2)
are cornerstones of the demand for a free, unrestricted data exchange
initiating the start of net activism. In the nineties activists rejected
efforts to restrict web accesses through censorship, copyright, charges
and other barriers. 21
In 1985 the network The WELL (the Whole Earth ´Lectronic
Link) started in Sausalito/California. Its system was based on a BBS programme
for video conferences (PicoSpan für Unix) offering all participants
access to a database. 22 The WELL was an online proceeding
of the information exchange constituting the core of the "Whole
Earth Catalog". After its first print in autumn 1968 Stuart Brand
edited updates until 1994. This `catalogue in progress´ featured
books and technologies inspiring people living in the Bay Area´
s surroundings of the commune keepers and the grassroots activism. Buckminster
Fuller´s all-encompassing world view was the main inspiration:
The insights of Buckminster Fuller are what initiated this catalog. 23
Brand, Stewart (ed.): Whole
Earth Catalog. Fall
1968: Buckminster Fuller
(Brand: Earth 1968, p.3).
The transformation of the print version into The
WELL included fora being open for the readers´ propositions and
contributions. The "network forum" for the communication between
the authors of the print versions was developed further into public conferences
and newsgroups. 24
Following Fred Turner the counterculture of the sixties
´ New Communalist movement with estimated between two and six thousand
communes in the U.S.A., many of them located in the Bay Area, was converted
in the eighties in "virtual communities" by The WELL. 25
One of the public conferences on The WELL was the
Art Com Electronic Network (ACEN, see chap. VI.1.2). 26
VI.1.2 Participation in Networks of the
Sharp Associates Network (IPSANET) offered clients accesses to its mainframe
computers. With acquirable network-specific terminals clients were able
to reach nodes
being connected with transocean cabels and a "packet switching"
transmission technique. 27 In April 1979 I.P. Sharp
Associates Network put capacities at the disposal of artists communicating
with each other for two hours in a Computer Communications Conference
from terminals in 19 towns of America, Australia, Japan, Canada and Austria.
28 Since 1980 artists could employ a mailbox system
developed by Gottfried Bach for ASCII e-mails in the I.P. Sharp Associates
Network. In 1982 this "Artbox" developed further to ARTEX
(Artists´ Electronic Exchange Program). Until 1990 30 artists used ARTEX
in projects with participants operating on terminals located in several
Nodes of the I.P. Sharp Associates Network.
User manual for ARTEX in the I.P. Sharp Associates
Network, November 1982.
"14 artists or groups"
living in 15 cities (Amsterdam, Athen, Bath, Florenz, Frankfurt, Honolulu,
Istanbul, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vancouver,
Wellfleet, Vienna) participated in the project "The
World in 24 Hours". In 1982, during the Ars Electronica Festival
in Linz, Robert Adrian X administrated the telephone connections to the
I.P. Sharp Associates Network. At 12.00 a.m. local time people in the
participating cities could get in contact with the organisation centre
in Linz. In their changes from place to place during 24 hours the participants
followed the midday sun around the globe. Participants in Linz had three
telephone lines to interchange faxes and videos with varying participants.
For a telephone long distance transmission a Slow Scan TV Transceiver
transformed videos into audio signals. They had to be retransformed into
video signals on the receiver side. I.P. Sharp Associates Network provided
"Artbos and Confer programs" as well as opportunities to transmit
computer graphics. Via the Confer program the participants in 15 cities
were connected to the organisation centre in Linz. Many participants used
the "Computer Timesharing (I.P. Sharp APL/Network)" as well
as telefax and slow scan television. In Linz the resulting output was
presented on partition walls installed in the foyer of the ORF-Landesstudio
Oberösterreich. "Connectivity" 30 was
the main feature of "The World in 24 Hours". 31
Adrian X, Robert: The World in 24 Hours. Österreichischer
Rundfunk (ORF), Landesstudio Oberösterreich, Linz 1982: posting up of
telefacsimiles from Tokyo, Frankfurt and Wien.
In 1983 Roy Ascott organised a collaborative writing
project: Participants in Bristol, Honolulu, Paris, Pittsburg, Sidney,
Vancouver and Vienna cooperated in writing text contributions for the
roles of a "planetary
fairytale". On projections in the Musée d´Art Moderne
de la Ville de Paris visitors of the exhibition "Elektra" could
follow the writers developing «La
Plissure du Texte» in the e-mail network ARTEX. 32
Ascott, Roy: La Plissure du Texte, 1983. Tom Klinkowstein
and Greg McKenna at a terminal for the I.P. Sharp Associates Network in
La Mamelle, San Francisco.
Ascott, Roy: La Plissure du Texte, 1983. Text contribution
(detail) from Vancouver for La Princesse.
In 1985 Norman White initiates a translation chain
Within 24 hours Robert Zend´s "The Message (For Marshall McLuhan)
" (published in Zend´s "From Zero to One", 1973)
was sent on I.P. Sharp Associates Network from one participating centre
to the next and translated. The eight participants in eight centres in
England, America, Canada and Japan modified the text from one translation
to the next. For comparisons the following quotes offer the English versions
from the start and the end of the chain: "...a General behind the
pillar stopped fingering the bosom of the maid of honour" is changed
into "The king sat calmly on his festive chair, his hand on a woman´s
White, Norman: Hearsay, 1985. Left: the start of the
Right: the end.
Within the I.P. Sharp Associates Network the costs
of a connection did not change with different distances of recipients.
With Bulletin Board Systems like The WELL (see chap. VI.1.1) "it
was almost impossible to link networks across the oceans due to the slow
modem speeds and high phone costs... 34
In the projects
for the I.P. Sharp Associates Network mentioned above the participation
was limited to invited guests working within the context of art. These
projects presented the participants´ contributions successively.
But this is not a use of the connectivity as a precondition for a participation
in favor of the interactions´ social aspects in contrast
to Kit Galloway´s and Sherrie Rabinovitz´s Los Angeles based
project "Electronic Cafe".
In 1984 the café of the Museum of Contemporary Art and four cafés
in districts with publics of different ethnic groups offered to their
visitors terminals with connections to the bulletin board of the Community
Memory in Berkeley. The navigation in the Bulletin Board was designed
as simple as possible. The Bulletin Board System included a database with
texts and photos created by participants. A telewriter could be used by
participants as a pen to make up handwritten documents texts and
drawings and to post them. Video prints could be transfered via
a Slow Scan Video System (SSTV). Participants on terminals of two different
cafés could draw simultaneously on an image, store it in the database
for images and publish it. 35 For the first time a Laser
Optical Disk Recorder was used as a database for images in a network.
Galloway, Kit/Rabinovitz, Sherrie: Electronic Café, Los Angeles 1984.
Diagram of the installation´s functions as they were installed in
each café (Youngblood: Raum 1986, p.298).
The project can be understood as a "prototype of all internet cafés"
as well as of the "context-based systems" 37,
the platforms of the nineties´ internet refering to urban contexts.
Gene Youngblood writes on the "Electronic Café":
...the information environment as commons, equally accessible to everyone. 38
Youngblood features the inclusion of image documents into the network,
the openness of the Bulletin Board unedited for contributions of all kinds
and the possibility to send contributions anonymously as characteristics
of the "Electronic Café":
Democracy is threatened if we can´t participate anonymously in communities defined by telecommunication, not geography. 39
With the usability of terminals
for participants of different income groups and the urban context of Los
Angeles as a social reference framework the "Electronic Café"
anticipates in 1984 "context-based systems" of the nineties
like "De Digitale Stad" in Amsterdam (since 1993) and the "Internationale
Stadt" in Berlin (1994-98) 40 using the availability
of personal computers and telecommunication networks in efforts to build
a new community. The social and libertarian aspirations of the sixties
and seventies were combined in the eighties and nineties with the widely
distributed personal computers 41 in ways offering virtual
and urban communities to complement each other.
Galloway, Kit/Rabinovitz, Sherrie: Electronic Café, Los Angeles 1984.
Links: Videoprints. Rechts: Telewriter.
In spring 1986 the artists´ group Art Com opened a "public
conference" on the Bulletin Board System The WELL (see chap. VI.1.1).
In 1986 Carl Eugene Loeffler, Lorna and Fred Truck, Anna Couey and others
installed the Art Com Magazine on The WELL and as a newsgroup on USENET
informing their readers on current developments of the art, computer technology
and networks. The readers are invited to post comments and to engage themselves
Art Com Magazine attempts to realize publishing as a creative (art publishing as art work) and communicative medium shaped by the community that reads it. 42
Anna Couey´s invitation to participate takes
up the openness for cooperation being usual in The WELL: In Bulletin Board
Systems a reader reacts to existing contributions with his own comments
and with them he offers impulses to other readers for a continuation of
the dialogue. Couey´s conception of the art work as a "communication
system" takes up the sixties and seventies developments of an engaged
art and anticipates the later collaborative writing projects. George Landow
and others address the later emerging change of a person´s roles
between reader and author and designate it as "wreader" (writer/reader).
With it they mark the changeover from a participative action art to direct
social interactions between remote participants. 43
Art Com Electronic Network: Start Menu, since 1990
(Couey: Art Works 1991, p.128, fig.1).
In 1989 Anna Couey, Carl Eugene Loeffler and Fred Truck installed the
Art Com Electronic Mail for the distribution of books, videos and software
by and on artists. On the one hand the Whole Earth Catalog was extended
in the Art Com Electronic Mail by product descriptions for the section
media art. On the other hand a precursor of contemporary webshops was
installed with a "checkout cashier".
The Normals: Couey Virtual Museum of Descriptions of
Art, Art Com Electronic Network, since 1990 (Couey: Art Works 1991, p.129,
In 1990 a Bulletin Board was started and organised as a Virtual Museum
containing descriptions of art works written by the authors´ group
"the Normals" (with Anna Couey). The "Couey Virtual Museum
of Descriptions of Art" could be extended by new contributions from
"wreaders". The Virtual Museum was open for descriptions of
concepts for works either waiting to be realised or being notations independent
Users variously describe their experience of seeing a work of art, or create their own through description. 44
Some collaborative projects by ACEN anticipating
future forms to use the internet for literature were "The Heart of
the Machine" of Dromos Editions (Ian Ferrier and Fortner Andersen,
since 1987), "Das Casino" by Carl Eugene Loeffler and Fred Truck
(1987-88) as well as "Exquisite Corpse" by Gil Mina Mora (since
1988). "In the Heart of the Machine" was a novel in instalments.
In preparing the next chapters the authors incorporated biographies sent
by participants. "Das Casino" was a "bulletin board topic"
with participants writing a dialogue in a "conceptual game of roulette".
The topic included the fictive money Casinobux and a program generating
random numbers. An alternative to this "participatory text performance"
offered Mora´s "Exquisite Corpse" in transforming the
surrealist strategy of a collaborative successive creation of drawings
(«cadavre exquis») into a text-producing strategy: Participants
could not read more than the last line of the newest contribution. The
69th contribution was chosen as the end of the text. 45
In the internet the cyberspace
frequently invoked in the eighties was not an illusionary space for the
observers´ immersion but a space for dialogues and discussions.
The internet was described by initiators of ARTEX projects like Robert
Adrian X and Roy Ascott as an information room with worldwide accesses.
46 ARTEX participants could use the oversea cables of
the I.P. Sharp Associates Network meanwhile the participants of The WELL
constituted locally limited communities like ACEN on the West Coast of
the U.S.A. by the reasons mentioned above. Their members could meet each
other if the result of written dialogues was the fixation of a date for
a direct communication on the complicated navigation in the internet.
The "Electronic Café"
was constituted by the telecommunications between population groups living
apart from each other in the urban context. The telecommunication can
be used in a local context to undermine social and racial barriers being
kept alive in urban spaces. Contrary to such locally based works the projects
of Ascott and ACEN integrate remote participants in experiments transgressing
established literary forms.
In the seventies the journal "Radical Software" offered a forum
to video artists to exchange informations about new video techniques and
various kinds to use them. The articles published in "Radical Software"
could point out the juxtaposition of two cultures social-critically
engaged on one side and experimental formal on the other side but
not mediate between them (see chap. IV.1.1). In networks these both sides
are connected tighter to each other because in public conferences a distributed
authorship is practiced deconstructing hierarchies between authors and
recipients. The experiment is the practice of distributed authorship:
Social engagement and intelligent uses of media are no longer artistic
strategies complementing each other in no other way than by "Radical
Software´s" contextualisation within an alternative culture
encompassing both sides unconnected. The one-way communication of cinema
and television got its first alternative in the seventies´
Community TV via cable or radio. 48 In the eighties
a second alternative is added by a two-way communication in fora
being part of projects like the boards and topics of ACEN. In web projects
since the nineties video engagement and discussion fora complement each
other. In this third alternative media experiments and social criticism
are no longer opposites (see chap. VI.3.4). 49
Dr. Thomas Dreher
Homepage with numerous articles
on art history since the sixties, a. o. on Concept Art and Intermedia
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1 Strachey: Time Sharing 1960, p.340. Cf. Bunz: Geschichte
2009, p.39s.; Friedewald: Computer 2009, p.128-137. back
2 An example for an early Time Sharing system: "The
Sumerian Game" by BOCES and IBM, in 1965/66 tested by students (see
chap. VII.1.3.2). back
3 Friedewald: Computer 2009, p.129. back
4 "Intelligence augmenting tool" ("intelligenzverstärkendes
Werkzeug"): Friedewald: Computer 2009, p. 122,130s. Cf. Bardini:
Bootstrapping 2000, p.1,10ss.,19ss.,23s.,28-32,36s.; Engelbart: Intellect
1962, p.72s; Licklider/Taylor: Computer 1968/1990, p.26s. back
5 Bardini: Bootstrapping 2000, p.13; Engelbart: Intellect
1962, p.22s. back
6 Engelbart/English: Research 1968; Licklider/Taylor:
Computer 1968/1990; Rheingold: Community 1994, chap.3.
Licklider: Symbiosis 1960/1990, p.5: "Severe problems are posed by
the fact that these operations have to be performed upon diverse variables
and in unforeseen and continually changing sequences. If those problems
can be solved in such a way as to create a symbiotic relation between
a man and a fast information-retrieval and data-processing machine, however,
it seems evident that the cooperative interaction would greatly improve
the thinking process."
Engelbart: Intellect 1962, p.6: "In such a future working relationship
between human problem-solver and computer 'clerk', the capability of the
computer for executing mathematical processes would be used whenever it
was needed. However, the computer has many other capabilities for manipulating
and displaying information that can be of significant benefit to the human
in nonmathematical processes of planning, organizing, studying, etc. Every
person who does his thinking with symbolized concepts (whether in the
form of the English language, pictographs, formal logic, or mathematics)
should be able to benefit significantly."
Ebda, S. 37: "These new ways of working are basically available with
today's technology--we have but to free ourselves from some of our limiting
views and begin experimenting with compatible sets of structure forms
and processes for human concepts, human symbols, and machine symbols."
7 Engelbart: Intellect 1962, p.69s.; Licklider/Taylor:
Computer 1968/1990, p.25,29s. Cf. Friedewald: Computer 2009, p.132 with
ill.29, p.136s. back
8 Bardini: Bootstrapping 2000, p.149,153,158 (Alto Ethernet
interface, end of 1973); Friedewald: Computer 2009, p.250,257,260-269,275-292,337s.;
Matis: Wundermaschine 2002, p.269s.; Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.3.
9 Engelbart: Intellect 1962, p.72. back
10 ARPANET: Bunz: Geschichte 2009, p.83-91; Roberts:
ARPANET 1995; Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.29-41.
ARPANET until the end of 1972: 24 sites were connected. Among them are
American universities, the Department of Defense, the National Science
Foundation, NASA and the Federal Reserve Board. Until 1977 the ARPANET
connected 111 mainframe computers. It was abandoned in 1990 (Stewart:
ARPANET 1996-2012). back
11 Matis: Wundermaschine 2002, p.309; Rheingold: Community
1993, chap.3. back
12 Baran: Communication 1964; Baran: Communications
I 1964; Bunz: Geschichte 2009, p.57-63; Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.3;
Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.20-26.
In 1968 Donald Watts Davies developed a packet switching procedure at
the British National Physical Laboratory independent from Baran. The developers
of the ARPANET knew the proposals of Baran and Davies on packet switching
(Hafner/Lyon: Wizards 1998, pdf p.41ss.; Matis: Wundermaschine 2002, p.306;
Roberts: ARPANET 1995; Warnke: Theorien 2011, p.26-29). back
13 Hafner/Lyon: Wizards 1998, pdf p.64,73; Pias: Computer
On the technical implementation of the "packet switching" in
the ARPANET: Mutis: Wundermaschine 2002, p.306s.; Roberts: ARPANET 1995.
14 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.3;
Scheller/Boden/Geenen/Kampermann: Internet 1994, p.47-70. back
15 Bunz: Geschichte 2009, p.100-108; Warnke: Theorien
2011, p.43-47,76-86. back
16 Bulletin Board Systeme, since 1978: Rheingold: Community
Newsgroups: Usenet News, ab 1980: Arns: Netzkulturen 2002, p.17s.; Rheingold:
Community 1993, chap.
MUDs: Multi-User Dungeons (since 1979/80). Among others, "Adventure
Games" were played in MUDs. In these games questions were presented
and the players are asked for the right answers. Rheingold describes the
addictive character of the MUDs´ fictional worlds (Rheingold: Community
1993, chap.5). back
17 Berners-Lee: Web 1999, p.68-71,79,99; Scheller/Boden/Geenen/Kampermann:
Internet 1994, p.282-293. back
18 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2
and 4. back
19 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.4.
20 Rheingold: Community 1993, Introduction;
Turner: Counterculture 2006, p.159-162. back
21 Arns: Netzkulturen 2002, p.24-29; Barbrook/Cameron:
Ideology 1996; Barlow: Cyberspace 1996; Stallman: Copyright 1996; Stallman:
Software 2002; Lessig: Code 1999. back
22 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2;
Turner: Counterculture 2005, p.499; Turner: Counterculture 2006, p.3,141s.,144.
23 Brand: Earth 1968, p.3. Vgl. Turner: Counterculture
2006, p.57. back
24 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2
and 4; Turner: Counterculture
2005, p.496,499; Turner: Counterculture 2006, p.7,79s.,84,86,89,142,151s.
25 Turner: Counterculture 2005, p.487,503; Turner:
Counterculture 2006, p.5s.,63s.,142,146ss.,158s.,161s. back
26 Couey: Cyber Art 1991; Couey: Art Works 1991; Loeffler:
Telecomputing 1989, p.129; Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2.
27 Moore: History 2005.
In 1991 Robert Adrian X said about the terminal: "I had a terminal
at home. I even have it at home, now it is an object for a museum collection.
It looks like a big portable typewriter. It contains only a keyboard with
a 300 baud acoustic coupler, and it printed everything on thermal paper.
People without terminal had to visit one of I.P. Sharp´s offices.
The equipment was quiet expensive at that time circa 2000 $ for
a new unit. I bought my machine second hand for circa 600 $." (Baumgärtel:
Interview 1997) back
28 Interplay, 4/1/1979, from 8.00 to 10.00 p.m., organised
by Bill Bartlett (Adrian X: Kunst 1995, p.10; Breitwieser: Re-Play 2000,
29 Adrian X: Kunst 1995; Braun: Video 2000, p.4s.;
Breitwieser: Re-Play 2000, p.300; Couey: Cyber Art 1991. back
30 Ascott/Loeffler: Connectivity 1991. back
31 Duration: from 9/27/1982, 12.00 a.m., to 9/28/1982,
12.00 a.m. ( Linz, local time). Lit.: Adrian X: Raum 1989, p.142,145;
Adrian X: Welt 1982 (quotations, p.146); Braun: Adrian X 2001, p.114-119;
Arns: Interaction 2004, chap. Electronic Space as "Communications
Sculpture"; Braun: Video 2000, p.421s.; Breitwieser: Re-Play 2000,
p.302; Daniels: Engineering 2010, p.21; Grundmann: Art 1984, p.86-99.
32 Berry: Thematics 2001, p.66: "The result of
this collaborative endeavor...is like a very extensive `corps exquis´
(played without the element of concealment) mixing languages, role playing,
and rambling narratives in such a way as to make it nearly impossible
for an outsider to follow." Lit.: Adrian X: Kunst 1995, p.11; Ascott/White
et al.: Plissure 1983; Braun: Video 2000, p.422s.; Breitwieser: Re-Play
2000, p.304; Daniels: Engineering 2010, p.22; Grundmann: Art 1984, p.24,35s.,59-68;
Heibach: Literatur 2003, p.88s.; Popper: Art 1993, p.124,134. back
33 Baumgärtel: Immaterialien 1997, chap. Freude
am (ASCII-)Text; White: Hearsay 1985. back
34 Adrian X: Interview 2001, p.63. back
35 Youngblood: Raum 1986, p.298. back
36 Software: Lee Felsenstein and his former colleagues
of the Community Memory Networks, Berkeley (since 1973, Slaton: Community
Memory 2001). back
37 Arns: Interaction 2004, chap. Social Networking,
38 Youngblood: Raum 1986, p.357. back
39 Youngblood: Raum 1986, p.358.
Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2
on the opposite practice of The WELL: "Nobody is anonymous."
It was not possible to disconnect "pseudonyms" from the "real
40 Arns: Netzkulturen 2002, p.52-55; Baumgärtel:
Internet 1998, chap 2.1.
41 Stewart Brand, founder of The WELL (see chap. VI.1.1),
to Howard Rheingold: "The personal computer revolutionaries were
the counterculture." (Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2)
42 Couey: Art Works 1991, chap. Art Com Magazine. back
43 The "wreader" is thematised by scholars
as reader eliciting relations in hyperfictions. There are transitions
from an active reading of hyperfictions to the participation in collaborative
writing projects (Heibach: Literatur 2003, p.50 with ann.86; Landow: Hypertext
2004, chap. Animated Text; Rau: Wreader 2001; Simanowski: Tod 2004, p.87).
The reader is mentally activated by multilinear links (see chap. VI.2.2).
A wreader acts in virtual fora similar to authors of public letters when
he tries to provoke with his own remarks other readers to react critically
to his contribution. back
44 Couey: Art Works 1991. back
45 Couey: Art Works 1991 (quotations); Couey: Cyber
Art 1991; Gangadharan: Mail Art 2009, p.292ss.; Loeffler: Art Com Electronic
Network 1988, p.321; Loeffler: Telecomputing 1989.
Judy Malloy´s hyperfiction "Uncle Roger" (1986-87) is featured in chap. VI.2.2.
46 Adrian X: Kunst 1984, p.79 (ARTEX): "If artists´
telecomm is to have any reality it must seek to operate on a global basis...Artists
who really want to operate in the electronic space of telecommunications...must
take into account the equipment available to their partners in other parts
of the world..."
Ascott: Art 1984, p.35s. (ARTEX): "...the act is indifferent to the
geographical location of its contributors...There can be this sense of
out-of-body experience, joining up with others in the aetheric, electronic,
and totally timeless space." back
47 Rheingold: Community 1993, chap.2.
48 Taesdale: Videofreex 1999; Dreher: Radical Software
2004, chap. video and TV. back
49 Dreher: Participation with Camera 2007, chap. TV-Programme
and Participation, with ann.9 and 10; Dreher: Radical Software 2004, chap.
Documentation and Intervention, Mapping & Acting. back
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